Child Development Final Exam

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Child Development Final Exam by Mind Map: Child Development Final Exam

1. Cliques and Crowds

1.1. Cliques

1.1.1. 5-7 people

1.1.2. found in early adolescence same gender

1.1.3. found in later ages mixed genders

1.2. Crowds

1.2.1. larger than cliques friends and acquaintances opportunity to meet new people

1.2.2. have identities and reputations of their own

1.3. Romantic Relationships

1.3.1. develops in stages

1.3.2. cultural and generational differences

1.3.3. takes place alongside peer relationships

2. Relationships with Peers

2.1. close relationship vs. peer networks

2.2. friendship is based on:

2.2.1. reciprocity

2.2.2. equality

2.2.3. intimacy

2.2.4. autonomy

2.2.5. commitment

2.3. gender

2.3.1. girls have more intense and intimate relationships

2.3.2. boys engage more in friendly competition

3. Emotional Expression and Regulation

3.1. Parents

3.1.1. better emotional regulation is associated with warm and supportive parents especially during mid-childhood

3.2. Gender Differences

3.2.1. boys and girls express emotions differently due to societal roles

3.2.2. gender differences in crying

3.3. Biology

3.3.1. significant biological events contribute to the emotions in adolescents influx of hormones due to puberty spurt in brain growth due to puberty, but it's still not fully developed until late adolescence

3.3.2. accounts for sensation-seeking behavioral patterns

3.3.3. there's a gap between the emotions triggered by hormones and the brain's ability to deal with them

3.4. Main Features

3.4.1. impulse control

3.4.2. inhibition

3.4.3. persistence

3.5. Are teenagers actually more emotional?

3.5.1. average happiness decreases during adolescence due to the increased stress and negative emotions of being a teenager and gaining more responsibility and just becoming an adult

3.5.2. girls have more positive emotions than boys

3.5.3. over adolescence, emotions become less intense

4. Moral Development

4.1. Gilligan

4.1.1. morality of care relationships compassion social obligations

4.1.2. more inclusive view of moral development

4.2. Kohlberg

4.2.1. reflects a morality of justice rightness fairness justice

4.2.2. post conventional thinking requires formal operations considers various factors relevant to choices shift in perspective to individual in a larger society more abstract principles of right and wrong most people eventually reach this even with cultural differences

4.2.3. Development reasoning through pre conventional thinking during middle childhood avoidance of punishment (stage 1) gaining rewards (stage 2) serving one's own needs or interests kids start thinking at the conventional stage toward the end of middle childhood shared standards feelings of right and wrong living up to expectations conformity and expectations of others (stage 3) adolescence conformity to laws of the land (stage 4) not fully developed until mid 20s

5. Epistemic Development

5.1. Theories of Knowledge

5.1.1. Objectivist objective facts and definitive answers

5.1.2. Subjectivist no absolute truth, truth can change depending on perspective

5.1.3. Evaluativist truth can change but it is still subject to standards of evaluation

5.1.4. Cultural Differences ex. valuing traditions over scientific exploration

6. Cognitive Development

6.1. Formal Operations

6.1.1. ability to solve problems systematically

6.1.2. can consider multiple operations and relationships

6.1.3. hypothetical deductive reasoning the ability to judge an object based on logic regardless of accuracy

6.2. Concrete Operations

6.2.1. combining, separating, and transforming information

6.2.2. limited to concrete objects

6.2.3. characterized by decentration and objective thinking

6.2.4. 4 Domains reversability seriation ability to order items qualitatively transitive inference ability to infer the relationship between two objects based on their relationship to a third object ex. stacking cups inside one another abstract thinking

6.2.5. Examples Mastering of conservation volume task Classification understanding of subordinate and superordinate relations can attend to both at once ex. animals vs. dogs Metacognition ability to think about one's own thought processes ex. how does a toaster work?

6.2.6. Limitations hypothetical thinking ex. third eye drawing

6.3. Sociocognitive Conflict

6.3.1. rooted in social experience

6.3.2. children are exposed to differing points of view and they need to account for these

6.3.3. ex. the book is larger than the chair, the chair is larger than the house, therefore the book is what to the house schooling will probably not help build upon this skill as few as 30-40% of Americans in late teens/early 20s can solve these problems there's variability in individuals most everyday decisions don't involve this formal operational thinking

7. Physical Development

7.1. Gender Differences

7.1.1. primary vs. secondary characteristics primary is the growth of your reproductive organs and hormones that allow you to reproduce secondary is the things that come with the primary characteristics ex. body hair, deeper voice indicate to others that you are able to reproduce

7.1.2. girls early onset linked to more social and psychological difficulties at risk for a variety of problems in school

7.1.3. boys early maturation leads to popularity due to physical changes linked to athleticism some of the same risk factors as girls

7.1.4. early puberty lower levels of self control less adult supervision changes in peer group affiliation friends with older and more deviant people hormone-related impulses, desires, and reasoning that are not entirely sound

7.2. Puberty

7.2.1. Humans humans reach puberty later than other species due to the amount of time that is necessary for our brains to develop their complex thinking growth spurt marks the onset of puberty culminates with reproductive abilities firs visible sign of puberty 98% of adult height by the end of puberty

7.2.2. Timing genetic factors evidence from parents and twin studies gender ethnicity physical and emotional stressors exposure to envrionmental chemicals

7.2.3. influenced by environment and genetics

7.2.4. hypothalamus releases growth hormones that are responsible for making us develop

7.2.5. major physiological changes are due to evolutionary roles

7.3. Brain Development

7.3.1. limbic system complex changes in organization and function increased grey matter makes brain more vulnerable to addiction essential to understanding and adapting to emotional experiences

7.3.2. prefrontal cortex continued increase in white matter peak amount of grey matter in puberty hormone production is highest synaptogenesis then pruning