# Science Extension syllabus overview

Get Started. It's Free
Science Extension syllabus overview

## 1. M3: The Data, evidence and decisions

### 1.1. A student: › refines and applies the Working Scientifically processes in relation to scientific research SE-1 › uses statistical applications, mathematical processes and/or modelling to gather, process, analyse and represent reliable and valid data sets SE-4 › analyses and applies the processes used in reliable and valid scientific research to solve complex scientific problems and inform further research SE-5 › analyses and reports on a contemporary issue or an application of science informed by primary or secondary-sourced data, or both, in relation to relevant publicly available data sets SE-6 › communicates analysis of an argument or conclusion incorporating appropriate scientific language and referencing techniques in a scientific report SE-7

1.1.1. Modern scientific research involves making observations and measurements that produce ever-increasing amounts of data. All observations and measurements contain some uncertainty and error. Statistical methods help us quantify and characterise this uncertainty. Data usually contains patterns and trends available for analysis, using a variety of tools in order to derive meaning from them. Students will develop knowledge, understanding and skills related to the analytical techniques for accessing, storing and analysing high-volume unstructured secondary-sourced publicly available data set(s). Students will be provided with the opportunity to consider limitations and construct plausible inferences while understanding degrees of uncertainty in the data. Students will explore the difference between the concepts of proving that something is true and measuring the probability of a certain result by understanding falsification and statistical levels of confidence.

1.1.1.1. Patterns and Trends

1.1.1.1.1. Inquiry question: What tools are used to describe patterns and trends in data?

1.1.1.2. Statistics in Scientific Research

1.1.1.2.1. Inquiry question: How does statistical analysis assist in finding meaning in the trends or patterns in data sets?

1.1.1.3. Decisions from Data and Evidence

1.1.1.3.1. Inquiry question: How is evidence used to make decisions in the scientific research process?

1.1.1.4. Data Modelling

1.1.1.4.1. Inquiry question: How can data modelling help to process, frame and use knowledge obtained from the analysis of data sets?

## 2. M1: The foundations of scientific thinking

### 2.1. A student: › refines and applies the Working Scientifically processes in relation to scientific research SE-1 › analyses historic and cultural observations, ethical considerations and philosophical arguments involved in the development of scientific knowledge and scientific methods of inquiry SE-2 › analyses and applies the processes used in reliable and valid scientific research to solve complex scientific problems and inform further research SE-5

2.1.1. Content Focus - Scientific laws, theories, concepts and methods undergo changes over time to varying extents. - Scientists understand that there are few absolute truths. - Students explore historic and cultural observations, the way scientific research has changed over time, and how ethical frameworks have influenced this process. - They consider philosophical arguments in relation to the nature of science to deepen their understanding and refine their own views of and about science.

2.1.1.1. The development of modern science

2.1.1.1.1. Inquiry question: How have philosophical arguments influenced the development of modern scientific research?

2.1.1.2. Influences on Current Scientific Thinking

2.1.1.2.1. Inquiry question: What currently influences scientific thinking?

## 3. M2: The scientific research proposal

### 3.1. A student: › refines and applies the Working Scientifically processes in relation to scientific research SE-1 › interrogates relevant and valid peer-reviewed scientific research to develop a scientific research question, hypothesis, proposal and plan SE-3 › uses statistical applications, mathematical processes and/or modelling to gather, process, analyse and represent reliable and valid data sets SE-4 › analyses and applies the processes used in reliable and valid scientific research to solve complex scientific problems and inform further research SE-5 › analyses and reports on a contemporary issue or an application of science informed by primary or secondary-sourced data, or both, in relation to relevant publicly available data sets SE-6 › communicates analysis of an argument or conclusion incorporating appropriate scientific language and referencing techniques in a scientific report SE-7

3.1.1. Scientific Research Question and Hypothesis - Students are to propose a scientific research question that relates to one or more of the science disciplines, formulate a relevant hypothesis and conduct scientific research into an issue, problem, emerging theory or discovery, using relevant publicly available data sets. Students create a Scientific Research Portfolio to evidence and substantiate the research process. The Beginnings of Scientific Research - Successful scientific research depends upon the quality of the scientific research question. It must be meaningful, significant and feasible and clearly guide the scientific research process. It should be framed with consideration of methodologies, data collection and processing issues. Students will learn to develop a question that enables scientific research by exploring peer-reviewed published literature for guidance. Students will be guided to undertake relevant scientific research and to develop a detailed plan that lays the foundations for the subsequent processes to be employed to address a developed hypothesis. Methodology and Data Collection - Students are provided with opportunities to use established scientific methods to gather, process, analyse and represent valid, accurate and reliable quantitative and qualitative data. They will also apply methods to appropriately store, record and organise data.

3.1.1.1. Developing the Question and Hypothesis

3.1.1.1.1. Inquiry question: What are the processes needed for developing a scientific research question and initial hypothesis?

3.1.1.2. Scientific Research Proposal

3.1.1.2.1. Inquiry question: How is scientific research planned, based on a relevant hypothesis?

3.1.1.3. Methodology and Data Collection

3.1.1.3.1. Inquiry question: How is an appropriate methodology developed to collect valid and reliable data?

3.1.1.4. Processing Data for Analysis

3.1.1.4.1. Inquiry question: How is data processed so that it is ready for analysis?

## 4. M4: The research report

### 4.1. A student: › refines and applies the Working Scientifically processes in relation to scientific research SE-1 › analyses and applies the processes used in reliable and valid scientific research to solve complex scientific problems and inform further research SE-5 › analyses and reports on a contemporary issue or an application of science informed by primary or secondary-sourced data, or both, in relation to relevant publicly available data sets SE-6 › communicates analysis of an argument or conclusion incorporating appropriate scientific language and referencing techniques in a scientific report SE-7

4.1.1. Content Focus In order for science to progress, education, public funding and public support are required. Excellent oral and written communication skills are imperative to achieve these goals, as is the publication of a concise, clearly written, authentic, peer-reviewed scientific research report. A scientific research report follows a specific format that ensures that the scientific community can readily access and examine its contents, including related data, and to repeat methodologies, if required, to evidence claims made or conclusions drawn. All articles, papers or scientific reports must include a title, abstract, introduction, methodology, an analysis of uncertainties, results, discussion and a conclusion with a relevant bibliography and referencing. This module assists students in making final additions to the related Scientific Research Portfolio and to complete the related Scientific Research Report.

4.1.1.1. Reporting Findings

4.1.1.1.1. Inquiry question: How are the inferences, generalisations and conclusions derived from valid and reliable data reported?