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1. Present continuos

1.1. To form the present continuous the auxiliary verb "to be" and the verb + ing are used.

1.2. Affirmative Subject + to be + base + ing She is talking. Negative Subject + to be + not + base + ing She is not (isn't) talking Interrogative to be + subject + base + ing Is she talking?

1.3. Note: alternative negative contractions: I'm not going, you're not going, he's not going etc.

1.4. FUNCTIONS OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS As with all tenses in English, the speaker's attitude is as important as the time of the action or event. When someone uses the present continuous, they are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete

1.5. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS IS USED: to describe an action that is going on at this moment: You are using the Internet. You are studying English grammar. to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend: Are you still working for the same company? More and more people are becoming vegetarian. to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned or prepared: We're going on holiday tomorrow. I'm meeting my boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter? to describe a temporary event or situation: He usually plays the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight. The weather forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment. with "always, forever, constantly", to de describe and emphasise a continuing series of repeated actions: Harry and Sally are always arguing! You're constantly complaining about your mother-in-law!

1.6. BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are not usually used in the continuous form

1.7. VERBS THAT ARE NOT USUALLY USED IN THE CONTINUOUS FORM The verbs in the list below are normally used in the simple form because they refer to states, rather than actions or processes.

1.8. SENSES / PERCEPTION to feel* to hear to see* to smell to taste

1.9. OPINION to assume to believe to consider to doubt to feel (= to think) to find (= to consider) to suppose to think*

1.10. MENTAL STATES to forget to imagine to know to mean to notice to recognise to remember to understand

1.11. EMOTIONS / DESIRES to envy to fear to dislike to hate to hope to like to love to mind to prefer to regret to want to wish

1.12. MEASUREMENT to contain to cost to hold to measure to weigh

1.13. OTHERS to look (=resemble) to seem to be (in most cases) to have (when it means "to possess")*

1.14. EXCEPTIONS Perception verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) are often used with can: I can see... These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning This coat feels nice and warm. (your perception of the coat's qualities) John's feeling much better now (his health is improving) She has three dogs and a cat. (possession) She's having supper. (She's eating) I can see Anthony in the garden (perception) I'm seeing Anthony later (We are planning to meet)

2. Present Semple

2.1. To conjugate the present simple we use the infinitive for the subjects "I", "you", "we" and "they" and for the third persons "he", "she" and "it", we add a "-s" to the end of the verb.

2.1.1. Sujeto Conjugación - I, you, we, they. - talk, eat, learn, do, go… - he, she, it. - talks, eats, learns, does, goes…

2.2. Note: There are spelling exceptions in the third person, according to the letter in which the verb ends. The rules are the same as those used to form the plural of nouns. For more information, see the lesson about names.

2.3. 1. Affirmative Sentences Subject + verb. Examples: I talk. (I speak.) He eats. (He eats.) They learn. (They learn.)

2.4. 2. Negative Sentences Subject + auxiliary verb (to do) + negative auxiliary ("not") + verb. Examples: I do not [do not] talk. (I do not speak.) He does not [does not] eat. (He does not eat.) They do not [do not] learn. (They do not learn.)

2.5. Note: In negative phrases, the auxiliary verb ("to do") changes and the main verb goes in the infinitive.

2.6. 3. Interrogative Sentences Auxiliary verb (to do) + subject + main verb? Examples: Do you talk? (Do you speak?) Does he eat? (Does he eat?) Do they learn? (Do they learn?)

2.7. Note: As in negative phrases, in interrogative phrases the auxiliary verb ("to do") changes and the main verb goes in the infinitive. For more information on the sentence structure, see the lesson, build sentences.