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1. Endomembrane system

1.1. rough endoplasmic reticulum

1.1.1. has ribosome

1.1.2. transport protein made by ribosome to golgi apparatus

1.2. golgi apparatus

1.2.1. stacks of flattened membranous sacs

1.2.2. process, package & secretes modified proteins

1.3. nuclear envelope

1.3.1. double membrane with nuclear pores that encloses nucleus

1.4. smooth endoplasmic reticulum

1.4.1. do have ribosome

1.4.2. synthesis of lipid & detoxification of drugs and poison

1.5. vesicles

1.5.1. consist of fluid enclosed by lipid bilayer

2. Energy-related organelles

2.1. mitochondria

2.1.1. cylindrical shaped & made up of double membrane bound structure

2.1.2. 1)perform cellular respiration 2)produce energy(ATP) of cell 3)regulate cellular metabolism

2.2. chloroplast

2.2.1. lens shaped & contain chlorophyll

2.2.2. 1)trap sunlight during photosynthesis 2)convert light energy into sugar that can be used by cell

3. Others

3.1. centrioles

3.1.1. short cylinders of microtubules

3.1.2. form spindle fibres during cell division in animal cell

3.2. cillia

3.2.1. hair-like structures that extend outward from the surface of many animal cellsl

3.2.2. 1)important in the cell cycle and replication, and cilia play a vital part in human and animal development and in everyday life.

3.3. flagella

3.3.1. lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells

3.3.2. locomotion, but it also often has function as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell.

4. Vacuoles

4.1. fluid-filled sac enclosed by membrane called tonoplast

4.2. 1)store chemicals such as water, amino acid, sugar, mineral & waste products 2)helps maintain turgor pressure


6. Nucleus

6.1. nuclear envelope

6.1.1. double membrane with nuclear pores that encloses nucleus

6.2. nuclear pore

6.2.1. protein-lined channel in the nuclear envelope that regulates the transportation of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm

6.3. nucleolus

6.3.1. largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and produce subunit of ribosome

6.4. chromatin

6.4.1. diffuse threads containing DNA & protein

6.4.2. 1)package DNA into a denser shape 2) reinforce DNA macromolecule to allow mitosis 3) to prevent DNA damage 4) to control gene expression and DNA replication

7. Cytoskeleton

7.1. microtubules

7.1.1. protein cylinders that move organelle

7.2. intermediate filament

7.2.1. protein fibers that provide stability of shape

7.3. actin filament

7.3.1. protein fibers that play role in cell division and shape


8. Microbodies

8.1. vesicle with spherical shape and surrounded by a single phospholipid bilayer membrane contain matrix of intracellular material

8.2. 1)facilitates the breakdown of fats, alcohols and amino acid 2) involved in detoxification of peroxides and in photo respiration in plants

9. Ribosomes

9.1. small spherical organelle and either attached to RER or free

9.2. carry out protein synthesis and use information from nucleus to make these proteins