Branches of Science

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Branches of Science by Mind Map: Branches of Science

1. Natural Sciences

1.1. Physical Sciences

1.1.1. Chemistry Study of matter and the changes it undergoes Upload videos and links

1.1.2. Physics Study of energy, motion and forces Upload videos and links

1.1.3. Astronomy The chemistry and physics of the universe Upload videos and links

1.2. Life Sciences (Biology)

1.2.1. Zoology Is a discipline in biology that studies animals Upload videos and links

1.2.2. Botany The ecosystem where plants and technology meets together Upload videos and links

1.2.3. Ecology Studies the interactions among organisms and their environment Upload videos and links

1.2.4. Genetics Is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms Upload videos and links

1.3. Earth Science

1.3.1. Geology Is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time Upload videos and links

1.3.2. Oceanography Is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean Upload videos and links

1.3.3. Meteorology Is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting Upload videos and links

1.3.4. Paleontology Scientific study of life of the geologic past that involves the analysis of plant and animal fossils, including those of microscopic size, preserved in rocks Upload videos and links

2. Applied Sciences

2.1. Engineering

2.1.1. Computer Science Is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers Upload videos and links

2.1.2. Civil Engineering Is concerned with the development, design, construction, production and management of the physical infrastructure required to safeguard the safety, health, business activity and sustainability of our society Upload videos and links

2.1.3. Electrical Engineering Is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism Upload videos and links

2.1.4. Mechanical Engineering Is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems Upload videos and links

2.2. Health Sciences

2.2.1. Medicine Is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease Upload videos and links

2.2.2. Dentistry Is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity Upload videos and links

2.2.3. Pharmacy Is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs Upload videos and links

2.3. Agriculture

2.3.1. Plant Science Dairy Science Dairy science explores the technology and science behind the production of milk and milk products like cheese, yogurt, butter, ice cream and casein. Plant Pathology Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). Entomology Entomology is the study of insects. More than one million different species of insect have been described to date. They are the most abundant group of animals in the world and live in almost every habitat. Entomology is crucial to our understanding of human disease, agriculture, evolution, ecology and biodiversity. Soil Science Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. Agricultural Chemistry Agricultural chemistry is the study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation. Agricultural Botany The scientific and expert activities of the Department of Agricultural Botany are focused on floristic, morpho-anatomical and eco-physiological research of various cultivated and wild vascular plants of the Croatian flora. In light of this, we need to emphasize the studies referring to the influence of the increased concentrations of the tropospheric ozone on the anatomical structure of the agricultural cultures. The most significant are the research activities dealing with flora and vegetation, which primarily refer to the grassland and weed vegetation, as well as the succession stages of the grassland vegetation. Genetics And Plant Breeding Plant Breeding and Genetic Resources deals with scales ranging from the molecular level to the population level and requires knowledge of the physiology, ecology and genetics of cultivated plants.

2.3.2. Animal Science Nutrition Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion. Physiology Physiology deals with the study of functions of the body or any of its parts. A thorough knowledge of the structure of an animal imparts a lot of information about the various functions it is capable of performing. Reproductive Physiology The mission of the Physiology of Reproduction Program is three-fold: research the fundamental elements of reproductive biology necessary for development of systems to enhance the efficiency of animal reproduction and productivity, teach the latest principles and strategies/practices of reproductive biology to undergraduate and graduate students and through established extension programs, translate the acquired knowledge into reproductive systems to benefit producers and consumers. Animal Behavior Animal behavior is the study of these and other questions about why animals behave the way they do. The study of animal behavior begins with understanding how an animal's physiology and anatomy are integrated with its behavior. Genetics And Breeding The animal breeding and genetics section works to provide new scientific discoveries to age-old livestock production problems to help producers and consumers. Animal Products An animal product is any material derived from the body of an animal. Examples are fat, flesh, blood, milk, eggs, and lesser known products, such as isinglass and rennet. Education Is involved in research and education related to the health and welfare of animals and people. The primary focus is on the functioning of animals, both from a curiosity perspective and in relation to the various functions animals have for people.

2.3.3. Agricultural Engineering Agricultural Machinery & Structural Design Some typical areas of study include the design of agricultural equipment or structures (overlap with mechanical and structural engineering). Major advancements have been made in this area, especially with equipment. Large-row planters and automated driving and steering by many farming equipment companies are several mechanical advancements made with agriculture. Bio-engineering Bio-engineering, is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products. Biological engineering employs knowledge and expertise from a number of pure and applied sciences, such as mass and heat transfer, kinetics, biocatalysts, biomechanics, bioinformatics, separation and purification processes, bioreactor design, surface science, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and polymer science. Waste Management Waste management are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process. Agricultural Resource Management System (ARMS) The Agricultural Resource Management System (ARMS) is a geographic information system support tool to enable farmers to better identify their fields and livestock production facilities for their resource management planning, developing or updating their Environmental Farm Plan, food traceability, and animal health purposes. Farmers will be able to zoom, roam and manipulate maps containing pertinent geographic data for their businesses. Agricultural Technology Agricultural technology refers to technology for the production of machines used on a farm to help with farming.

2.3.4. Agricultural Economics Agricultural Environment And Natural Resources In the field of environmental economics, agricultural economists have contributed in three main areas: designing incentives to control environmental externalities (such as water pollution due to agricultural production), estimating the value of non-market benefits from natural resources and environmental amenities (such as an appealing rural landscape), and the complex interrelationship between economic activities and environmental consequences. Food And Consumer Economics While at some point the agricultural economy area was primarily focused on problems at company level, agricultural economists have studied various topics related to the economy of food consumption over the past years. In addition to the long-standing emphasis of economists on the effects of prices and incomes, researchers in this area have investigated how information and quality attributes influence the behavior of consumers. Production Economics And Farm Management Agricultural economics research has addressed diminishing returns in agricultural production, as well as farmers' costs and supply responses. Much research has applied economic theory to farm-level decisions. Studies of risk and decision-making under uncertainty have real-world applications to crop insurance policies and to understanding how farmers in developing countries make choices about technology adoption. These topics are important for understanding prospects for producing sufficient food for a growing world population, subject to new resource and environmental challenges such as water scarcity and global climate change. Development Economics Development economics is broadly concerned with the improvement of living conditions in low-income countries, and the improvement of economic performance in low-income settings. Because agriculture is a large part of most developing economies, both in terms of employment and share of GDP, agricultural economists have been at the forefront of empirical research on development economics, contributing to our understanding of agriculture's role in economic development, economic growth and structural transformation. Many agricultural economists are interested in the food systems of developing economies, the linkages between agriculture and nutrition, and the ways in which agriculture interact with other domains, such as the natural environment.

2.3.5. Horticulture Biological Science in 21st Century Genetic Engineering Biotech Bio-chemistry Microbiology Pharmacology Pomology Pomology is a science of fruit growing. Olericulture Olericulture is the science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food. Ornamental Horticulture Ornamental horticulture consists of floriculture and landscape horticulture. Each is concerned with growing and marketing plants and with the associated activities of flower arrangement and landscape design. The turf industry is also considered a part of ornamental horticulture.

2.3.6. Agronomy Crop Science Crop Science research in crop breeding and genetics; crop physiology and metabolism; crop ecology, production, and management; seed physiology, production, and technology; turfgrass science; crop ecology, management, and quality; genomics, molecular genetics, and biotechnology; plant genetics resources; biomedical, health beneficial, and nutritionally enhanced plants; and pest management. Soil Science Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. Environmental Science Environmental science is the study of the effects of natural and unnatural processes, and of interactions of the physical components of the planet on the environment.

3. Formal Sciences

3.1. Mathematics

3.1.1. Differentiation Process of finding the derivative, or rate of change, of a function. Upload videos and links

3.1.2. Functions A function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. Upload videos and links

3.1.3. Trigonometry The study of angles and of the angular relationships of planar and three-dimensional figures. Upload videos and links

3.1.4. Vectors In mathematics, a vector is an element of a vector space. Upload videos and links

3.1.5. Algebra Is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols. Upload videos and links

3.1.6. Geometry Is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. Upload videos and links

3.1.7. Equation An equation is a statement of an equality containing one or more variables. Upload videos and links

3.1.8. Integration An integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. Upload videos and links

3.2. Statistics

3.2.1. Descriptive statistics Consists of organizing and summarizing data, such as numerical summaries, tables and graphs. Upload videos and links

3.2.2. Inferential statistics Use a random sample of data taken from a population to describe and make inferences about the population. Upload videos and links

3.3. Logic

3.3.1. Formal The study of systems of deductive argument in which symbols are used to represent precisely defined categories of expressions. Upload videos and links

3.3.2. Informal Is a broad term for any of the various methods of analyzing and evaluating arguments used in everyday life. Upload videos and links

4. Social Sciences

4.1. Sociology

4.1.1. Theoretical Sociologist Is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture of everyday life. Upload videos and links

4.1.2. Historical Sociology It is the study of social facts and social groups. It studies the background of any social events. Upload videos and links

4.1.3. Sociology of Knowledge The newly emerged branch of sociology indicates that our knowledge is the product of social phenomena. This means our knowledge is always influenced by society. The economic religious political and other intrests save the human belief and idea. Upload videos and links

4.1.4. Criminology This branch of sociology studies the criminal behavior of individuals or groups. Origin of crime its types nature, causes as well as law, punishment, police, etc. come under this study, The efforts for the improvement is also studied. Different organizations establish to control the crime as well as their role also come under its study. Upload videos and links

4.1.5. Sociology of Religion This branch studies the structure of the religion in social system as no society is free from the influence of it. It analyses the social behavior of human beings. It also studies the religious constitutions and their role in the society. Upload videos and links

4.1.6. Sociology of Economy This branch of sociology studies production, distribution, consumption and exchange of goods and services. This branch also studies the economic activities of the society in which the focus is given about the socio-cultural factors. The access in production, the mode of distribution, the real consumers, the role of culture in such activities are studied under it. Upload videos and links

4.1.7. Rural Sociology This branch of sociology studies the way of life of rural people as the rural population is higher than the urban. The patterns of life such as behavior, belief, culture, tradition norms, values, etc. are totally different than of urban people. So, it studies the rural society in scientific way. It also studies rural life, social institutions, social structure, social processes, etc. of the rural society. Upload videos and links

4.1.8. Urban Sociology This branch of sociology studies the way of life of urban people. It gives information about the social organizations and instution of urban society as well as social structure and social interaction. It also studies the social pathology of urban society such as discrimination) crime, corruption, robbery, beggary, loot, theft, unemployment, prostitution, environmental pollution, etc. Upload videos and links

4.1.9. Political Sociology This branch of sociology studies different political moments of the society. It includes the study of different political ideology (view), their origin, development and functions. In this study, different political parties are considered as social institutions. Various activities and behavior of political parties are studied in this branch. As they are the part of social system. Upload videos and links

4.1.10. Sociology of Demography Demography of scientific mathematical and statically study of population. It studies about size, situation, composition, density, distribution, and measurement etc. of the population. In this branch of sociology, we study the distribution of human population with the analysis of population change in sociological perspectives. It also finds out the determining factors of population change and its trend. Upload videos and links

4.1.11. Sociology of Law Sociology of law and legal system are considered as the part of society, as social institution. Law is one of the very important means of social control. Law is related with other different social sub systems. Such as economy, nature of distribution, authority, structure of family kinship relationships, etc. So, this branch of sociology is related to moral order for the society as formulation and implementation of rules and regulations, law and order come under this. Upload videos and links

4.1.12. Industrial Sociology This branch of sociology is concerned with the industrial relationship of the human beings. It studies the different industrial organizations and institutions. As well as their interrelationship and links with other various institutions of society. It also studies the inter relationships of industrial institutions with various aspects of human life such as culture, beliefs, customs, religion or the way of life. Upload videos and links

4.2. Economics

4.2.1. Microeconomics Neoclassical In economics the dominant framework for exploring the structure of market economies is provided by the neoclassical school of thought. This text aims to show how neoclassical theory is used to model market mechanisms, both in particular markets and in the market economy as a whole. Development Economics Is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels. Environmental Is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues. It has become a widely studied topic due to growing concerns in regards to the environment in the twentyfirst century. Behavioural Studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory. Econometrics Is the application of statistical methods to economic data in order to give empirical content to economic relationships. More precisely, it is "the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference". Labour Economics Seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

4.2.2. Macroeconomics Classical / Free Market In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and by consumers. In a free market the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, by a price-setting monopoly, or by other authority. Keynesian Are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy). Marxist Is a movement in economic science, based on economic concepts and method of Karl Marx. This movement investigates the functioning of capitalist economies from class relations. A distinction is made between those who have the means of production (capitalists) and those who work for wages (workers). Economic issues are examined on the basis of the relations between these (and possibly other) classes. Austrian Austrian economists are known for supporting free markets and criticizing government intervention. In fact, many people mistakenly think of Austrian economics as nothing more than a radical defense of free markets, though it’s really a framework for studying human action and its social implications. Mercantilism / Protectionism Although mercantilism and protectionism are applied through the same economic measures, mercantilism is an offensive policy aimed at accumulating the largest trade surplus, while protectionism is a defensive policy aimed at reducing the trade deficit and restoring a trade balance in equilibrium to protect the economy. Monetarist Is an economic theory that focuses on the macroeconomic effects of the supply of money and central banking.

4.3. Law

4.3.1. Public Law Constitutional Law Is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments. Administrative Law Is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rule making, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Criminal Law Is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people inclusive of one's self.

4.3.2. Private Law Property Law Is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system. Contract Law Is the body of law that relates to making and enforcing agreements. A contract is an agreement that a party can turn to a court to enforce. Contract law is the area of law that governs making contracts, carrying them out and fashioning a fair remedy when there’s a breach.

4.4. Political Science

4.4.1. Public law Is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to society. Public law comprises constitutional law, administrative law, tax law and criminal law, as well as all procedural law. In public law, mandatory rules prevail. Laws concerning relationships between individuals belong to private law. Upload videos and links

4.4.2. Political Theory Is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. Upload videos and links

4.4.3. International Relations Is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level. Depending on the academic institution, it is either a field of political science, an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies, or an entirely independent academic discipline in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines. Upload videos and links

4.4.4. Domestic Policy Are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation's borders. It differs from foreign policy, which refers to the ways a advances its interests in world politics. Domestic policy covers a wide range of areas, including business, education, energy, healthcare, law enforcement, money and taxes, natural resources, social welfare, and personal rights and freedoms. Upload videos and links

4.4.5. Comparative Politics Is a field in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Upload videos and links

4.4.6. Potitical Statistics Statistics is an integral part of political science research. We live in a world where there is no shortage of numerical data and there is increasing demand for people who know how to make sense of it independent of the field of work. The goal of this course is to turn you into one of these people. In this class you will learn the basics of statistical inference and the most commonly used statistical techniques found in political science research. Upload videos and links

4.4.7. Public Administration Is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. Upload videos and links

4.4.8. Local Government Is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Upload videos and links

4.4.9. Political Dynamics Is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people. The term "authority" is often used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Upload videos and links

4.5. Psychology

4.5.1. Pure Psychology General Psychology The field of general psychology concerns itself with studying the mind. This includes cognition, perception, behavior and emotion. Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Although many behaviors could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context. Social Psychology Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Physiological Psychology Physiological psychology is a subdivision of behavioral neuroscience (biological psychology) that studies the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior through direct manipulation of the brains of nonhuman animal subjects in controlled experiments. Parapsychology Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena, including telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims. It is identified as pseudoscience by a vast majority of mainstream scientists. Geo- Psychology Geographical psychology focuses on how ecological, climatic, and psychological factors all contribute or are related to a variety of social indicators. Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan. Developmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviors change throughout life. This field examines change across three major dimensions: physical development, cognitive development, and socioemotional development. Experimental Psychology Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, including (among others) sensation & perception, memory, cognition, learning, motivation, emotion; developmental processes, social psychology, and the neural substrates of all of these.

4.5.2. Applied Psychology Educational Psychology Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. Industrial Psychology Industrial psychology combines the principles of psychology with a methodical investigation of various work settings. Often referred to as industrial-organizational psychology, this discipline analyzes numerous aspects of the working world and the attitudes of individuals toward their respective careers. The following article defines the main aspects of industrial psychology. Legal Psychology Legal psychology involves empirical, psychological research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law. Legal psychologists typically take basic social and cognitive principles and apply them to issues in the legal system such as eyewitness memory, jury decision-making, investigations, and interviewing. The term "legal psychology" has only recently come into usage, primarily as a way to differentiate the experimental focus of legal psychology from the clinically-oriented forensic psychology. Military Psychology Military psychology is the research, design and application of psychological theories and empirical data towards understanding, predicting, and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or the civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military operations. Military psychology transforms from sub-branch groups of different psychology disciplines into a tool used by the military, as will all tools of the military, to enable the troops to better survive the stresses of war while using psychological principles to unbalance the enemy forces for easier wins. Political Psychology Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding politics, politicians and political behavior from a psychological perspective. The relationship between politics and psychology is considered bi-directional, with psychology being used as a lens for understanding politics and politics being used as a lens for understanding psychology. As an interdisciplinary field, political psychology borrows from a wide range of other disciplines, including: anthropology, sociology, international relations, economics, philosophy, media, journalism and history. Criminal Psychology Criminal psychology, also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the wills, thoughts, intentions, and reactions of criminals and all that partakes in the criminal behavior. It is related to the field of criminal anthropology. The study goes deeply into what makes someone commit a crime, but also the reactions after the crime, on the run or in court. Criminal psychologists are often called up as witnesses in court cases to help the jury understand the mind of the criminal. Some types of psychiatry also deal with aspects of criminal behavior.