Effective Teaching, Learning and Assessment

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Effective Teaching, Learning and Assessment by Mind Map: Effective Teaching, Learning and Assessment

1. Classroom Management

1.1. Environment

1.1.1. Physical safety

1.1.1.1. Classroom layout

1.1.1.1.1. Collaborative

1.1.1.1.2. Traditional

1.1.1.2. Resources

1.1.1.3. Ownership

1.1.1.3.1. Encourage student involvement in est of rules and routines

1.1.1.4. Lighting and space

1.1.2. Emotional safety

1.1.2.1. Belonging

1.1.2.2. Self-esteem

1.1.2.3. Self-actualisation

1.1.3. Hebbs and Maslow

1.1.3.1. Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs

1.1.3.2. Hebb's synaptic plasticity for memory and learning

1.2. Behaviours

1.2.1. Greater prevention = less respsonse

1.2.1.1. Responses to misbehaviour

1.2.1.1.1. Bump Theory - Bennett and Smilanich

1.2.1.2. Prevention of misbehaviour

1.2.1.2.1. Build relationships with your students

1.2.1.2.2. Provide engaging content

1.2.1.2.3. Manage transitions

1.2.1.2.4. Be aware of the Pygmalion Effect

2. Assessment

2.1. Quality Assurance Process

2.1.1. Principles

2.1.1.1. Valid

2.1.1.1.1. Accurate assessment of student ability

2.1.1.1.2. measures what it is meant to

2.1.1.2. Reliable

2.1.1.2.1. Enables consistent judgement

2.1.1.3. Fair

2.1.1.3.1. equal opportunity to demonstrate achievement and abilities

2.1.1.4. Explicit

2.1.1.4.1. Criteria and judgment are clear and public

2.1.1.5. Feasible

2.1.1.5.1. can the students acheieve

2.1.1.5.2. make sure you don't set students up to fail

2.1.1.6. Educative

2.1.1.6.1. Contribute to learning

2.1.1.7. Alignment

2.1.1.7.1. Curricular

2.1.1.7.2. Instructional

2.1.1.7.3. Philosophical

2.1.1.8. Purpose

2.1.1.8.1. Feedback

2.1.1.8.2. Diagnosing

2.1.1.8.3. Monitoring and evaluation

2.1.1.8.4. Public accountability

2.1.1.8.5. International comparison

2.1.2. Types

2.1.2.1. Objective

2.1.2.1.1. Unbiased

2.1.2.1.2. Quizzes, T/F, Yes/No, Multiple Choice, completion

2.1.2.1.3. Relatively easy to design and administer but assesses only lower order thinking

2.1.2.2. Subjective

2.1.2.2.1. Multiple correct answers

2.1.2.2.2. Use rubrics or marking guides to be consistent and limit bias (unintentional or not)

2.1.2.2.3. Essays, short answer

2.1.2.2.4. Free response, constructed response

2.1.2.2.5. Students produce what they know

2.1.2.2.6. Assess higher order thinking but time is an important factor

2.1.2.3. Informal

2.1.2.3.1. Spontaneous

2.1.2.3.2. Teacher observation

2.1.2.3.3. Occur during instruction

2.1.2.4. Formal

2.1.2.4.1. Planned in advance

2.1.2.4.2. End of instruction

2.1.2.4.3. Students aware and can prepare

2.1.2.5. Formative

2.1.2.5.1. Assessment for learning

2.1.2.5.2. Gathered to improve learning

2.1.2.6. Summative

2.1.2.6.1. Assessment of learning

2.1.2.6.2. Makes judgement about student achievement or program effectiveness

2.1.2.7. Norm-referenced

2.1.2.7.1. Large quantities of data

2.1.2.7.2. Standardised tests

2.1.2.7.3. Bell curve

2.1.2.8. Criterion-referenced

2.1.2.8.1. Assessment against a pre-determined set of criteria

2.1.2.8.2. Examples

2.1.2.9. Performance

2.1.2.9.1. Doing, hands on, active

2.1.2.9.2. Must have scoring criteria

2.1.2.9.3. Process and product

2.1.2.9.4. Group or indiviudal

2.1.2.9.5. Authentic

2.1.3. Used by

2.1.3.1. Policy makers

2.1.3.2. Administrators and school planners

2.1.3.3. Teachers

2.1.3.3.1. Use for practice and planning

2.1.3.4. Students and parents

3. Teaching Strategies

3.1. Explicit teaching

3.1.1. Benefits

3.1.1.1. Process driven learning

3.1.1.2. Science and maths

3.1.1.3. Developing fine motor skills

3.1.1.4. Computer based learning

3.1.1.5. Effective for students with learning difficulties

3.1.1.6. Direct information that needs to be retained

3.1.1.7. Drill and repetition

3.1.1.8. Can be used in inquiry based models

3.1.2. Interactive questioning

3.1.2.1. Bloom's Taxonomy - use in question stems

3.1.2.1.1. Remembering

3.1.2.1.2. Understanding

3.1.2.1.3. Applying

3.1.2.1.4. Analysing

3.1.2.1.5. Evaluating

3.1.2.1.6. Creating

3.1.3. Characteristics

3.1.3.1. Gives students opportunity to practice

3.1.3.2. Allows curriculum and content to be chunked in small steps

3.1.3.3. Objectives are clearly stated to students

3.1.3.4. Sequential lessons

3.1.3.5. Allows new learning to connect to existing

3.1.3.6. Feedback provided after each practice

3.1.3.7. Uses modelling, demonstrations, pictures, maps, diagrams, videos, samples

3.2. Cooperative

3.2.1. Approaches

3.2.1.1. Structural theory

3.2.1.1.1. Kagan and Slavin

3.2.1.2. Social theory

3.2.1.2.1. Johnson - Five Basic Elements

3.2.1.2.2. Cohen - Complex Instruction

3.2.1.2.3. Schmuck - Group Processes

3.2.1.3. Safe classroom

3.2.1.3.1. Gibbs (Tribes)

3.2.1.3.2. Inclusion

3.2.1.3.3. Influence

3.2.1.3.4. Community

3.2.2. Benefits

3.2.2.1. Cohesion and belonging

3.2.2.2. Increases higher order thinking and retention

3.2.2.3. Positive relationships

3.2.2.4. Increases self-esteem

3.2.2.5. Increases psychological health

3.2.2.6. Increases motivation to learn

3.2.2.7. Increases social competency and social support

3.2.2.8. Informal or formal depending on purpose

3.2.3. Examples

3.2.3.1. Three step interview

3.2.3.2. Numbered heads together

3.2.3.3. Think Pair Share

3.2.3.4. Find the Fib

3.2.3.5. Rally robin

3.2.3.6. Roving reporter

3.2.3.7. Pairs Check

3.2.3.8. Round robin

3.2.3.9. Inside outside circles

3.2.3.10. Jigsaw

3.2.3.11. Team games tournament

3.2.4. KEY: Best to have 4 in a group

3.3. Visual

3.3.1. Graphic Organisers - David Ausabel, Murzano et al, Bennett

3.3.1.1. Mind Maps

3.3.1.1.1. Basic ordering of ideas (BOI)

3.3.1.1.2. Central idea in middle

3.3.1.1.3. Radiate outwards

3.3.1.1.4. Use colour and images

3.3.1.1.5. Use only most important categories

3.3.1.1.6. Recall, understand, analysis, inductive, heirarchical

3.3.1.2. Concept Maps

3.3.1.2.1. Novak, Biological sciences basis

3.3.1.2.2. Assimilation theory, new knowledge, existing ideas

3.3.1.2.3. Hierarchical, start at top of page

3.3.1.2.4. Lines and arrows to join concepts

3.3.1.2.5. Uses linking words

3.3.1.2.6. Analysis, evaluation, inductive

3.3.1.3. Fishbones

3.3.1.3.1. Dr Ishikawa

3.3.1.3.2. Cause and effect

3.3.1.3.3. Start with main idea at 'head'

3.3.1.3.4. Subcategories as 'bones' with detail under each

3.3.1.3.5. Linear and logical

3.3.1.3.6. Analysis and inductive

3.3.1.4. Venn diagrams

3.3.1.4.1. Based on boolean logic

3.3.1.4.2. shows relationships and classification

3.3.1.4.3. Circles either overlapping or no overlap

3.3.1.4.4. Analytic and inductive

3.3.2. Benefits

3.3.2.1. Assess level of thinking

3.3.2.2. Assess type of thinking

3.3.2.3. Good for visual learners

3.3.2.4. Alternative assessment tool

3.3.2.5. Can use ICT or pen and paper

4. Where to from here?

4.1. Prac placements

4.2. Professional development

4.3. Further research

4.4. Extend and refine mind map

4.5. Remember critical elements and practice practice practice!