McCulloch v Maryland

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McCulloch v Maryland by Mind Map: McCulloch v Maryland

1. Year Decided: 1819

2. Chief Justice: John Marshall

3. Importance of this case in relation to all Supreme Court Cases: This fundamental case established two important principles. (1) The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitutions’ expressed powers, in order to create a functional national government. This was done under the “Necessary and Proper Clause”. (2) State action my not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.

4. Relevant Details of the case: Maryland enacted a statute imposing a tax on all banks operating in Maryland not chartered by the state. The statute provided that all such banks was prohibited from issuing bank notes except upon stamped paper issued by the state. The statute set forth the fees to be paid for the paper and established penalties for violations. The Second Bank of the United States was established pursuant to an 1816 act of Congress. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States, issued bank notes without complying with the Maryland law. Maryland sued McCulloch for failing to pay the taxes due under the Maryland statute and McCulloch contested the constitutionality of that act. The state court found for Maryland and McCulloch appealed.

5. Information of the Majority Opinion: It was a unanimous opinion written by Chief Justice Marshall, the Court ruled that the Bank of the United States was constitutional and that the Maryland tax was unconstitutional. Concerning the powers of Congress to charter a bank, the Court turned to the Necessary and Proper Clause of Article I, Section 8, which expressly grant Congress the power to pass laws “necessary and proper” for the execution of its “enumerated powers”.

6. Information of the Dissenting Opinion: There was a unanimous decision in this case so there was not a dissenting opinion.

7. Constitutional significance and relevant Constitutional information: The case centered on Article IV's National Supremacy Clause and the Necessary and Proper Clause, Article I, Section 8. It established the following two important principles. (1) The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitutions’ expressed powers, in order to create a functional national government. This was done under the “Necessary and Proper Clause”. (2) State action my not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.