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Migration by Mind Map: Migration

1. Field note

1.1. Haitians are fleeing their home country on overcrowded boats in hope of making it to shore of the US due to poor living conditions and loss of hope back home making them illegal immigrants; This is just one example of many migrants who have fled their homes to North America, Europe, China, etc.

1.2. Today in the US a process is used including an intense interrogation for Haitians resulting in only few becoming refugees and a "wet foot, dry foot" policy for Cubans.

1.3. Migration varies by religion, age, gender, race, etc; perception is a big factor of migration.

1.4. Remittances- Monies migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries; plays a big part in the economy of that country and most poorer countries depend on it.

1.5. Reverse Remittances- remittances from foreign lands(Mexico) to the U.S. The struggling migrant asking back home for money.

1.6. Most immigrants are legal and countries recognize the need for immigrant labor and may encourage legal immigrants to work; thousands of legal immigrants have been temporarily recruited to work in the US and Canada.

1.7. Fences and security have been enforced on the border of Mexico and the US to reduce illegal immigrants into the US.

2. 1. What is Migration?

2.1. Movement speeds the diffusion of ideas, changes people and places, intensifies spatial interactions, and is inherently geographical.

2.2. Mobility ranges from local to global, has increased resulting in broader perspectives.

2.3. There are three types of movement based off of time away from home.

2.3.1. Cyclic Movement

2.3.1.1. Is defined as movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally (shorter periods)

2.3.1.2. Activity Space- The space within which daily activity occurs; scale varies.

2.3.1.3. Commuting by cars, trains, metros, or airplanes is an example of this movement

2.3.1.4. This movement may be seasonal which may be a luxury like moving down south for the winter where it's warmer or because of Nomadism-movement among a definite set of places for matter of survival, culture, or tradition

2.3.2. Periodic Movement

2.3.2.1. Is defined as movement that involves temporary, recurrent location (longer periods)

2.3.2.2. Common type of periodic movement is Migrant Labor- workers who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants in many instances.

2.3.2.3. A specialized form of periodic movement is Transhumance- a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.

2.3.2.4. Examples include attending college far away from home or military service.

2.3.3. Migration

2.3.3.1. Is defined as a change in residence intended to be permanent.

2.3.3.2. International Migration- human movement involving movement across international boundaries (Emigration is moving out of a country and Immigration is moving into a country)

2.3.3.3. Internal Migration- human movement within a country's borders; mapping the migration routes reveals patterns of migrants that change over time; varies based off of mobility (higher mobility means more common long distance and lower mobility means it's less common)

2.3.3.4. International migrants also migrate internally in their destination country to find the right place.

3. 4. How Do Governments Affect Migration?

3.1. The control of immigration, granting asylum to asylum-seeking refugees, and the fate of cross-border refugees are very popular issues around the world. Efforts to restrict migration flows are not new for example walls and fences have been made for this cause, i.e. Berlin Wall, Great Wall of China, fences along the Rio Grande, and Mexico-US border.

3.1.1. Legal Restrictions

3.1.1.1. Typically obstacles for immigrants are legal not physical.

3.1.1.2. Immigration Laws- Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.

3.1.1.3. Congress implemented these laws in order to keep the Chinese out of California

3.1.2. Waves of Immigration in the United States

3.1.2.1. Changes in the migration policies reflect the number of people entering the country and the origin of immigrants.

3.1.2.2. Two major waves of immigration occurred before the 1930s and we are experiencing one right now.

3.1.2.3. Quotas- Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year.

3.1.2.4. The US and Australia have restricted immigration and many other countries are practicing Selective Immigration- Process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating.While others have specific requirements for example South Africa requires pure European descent.

3.1.3. Post 9/11

3.1.3.1. Since this, government immigration policies have incorporated security concerns primarily with drug trafficking and human smuggling. These policies affect asylum-seekers by having people from where the terrorists had operated in automatically be detained, illegal immigrants by the suspicion that terrorists may stop at Haiti for example first before coming into the US, and legal immigrants because terrorists may use fabricated or altered papers to migrate to the US using visas. Many people however have argued that nothing has helped and they are opposed to these new policies.

4. 3. Where Do People Migrate?

4.1. Migration depends on various push and pull factors and each migration flow is helped or hampered by existing networks and governmental actions

4.1.1. Global Migration Flows

4.1.1.1. Global Scale Migration- migration that takes place across international boundaries and between world regions

4.1.1.2. Explorers- people examining a region that is unknown to them

4.1.1.3. Colonization- physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its on government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.

4.1.1.4. Europeans colonized the Americas, Africa, and Asia between the 1500s and 1900s, causing much of the human migration at an unpredicted scale. The greatest human migration was the flow from Europe to the Americas. Another mass of immigrants were the Atlantic slaves and then after the British migrated to South Asia

4.1.2. Regional Migration Flows

4.1.2.1. Migration occurs at many different scales, already discussed was global. It can also be at a Regional Scale- interactions occurring within`a region, in a regional setting.

4.1.2.1.1. Economic Opportunities

4.1.2.1.2. Reconnection of Culture Groups

4.1.2.1.3. Conflict and War

4.1.3. National Migration Flows

4.1.3.1. They are also thought of as internal migration flows. 2 major examples of this migration flow in history were America as people moved west, north, and south, the other was in Russia where people migrated east to the Pacific shores.

4.1.3.2. Russification- the Soviet policy to promote the diffusion of Russian culture throughout the republics of the former Soviet Union (apart of the second major internal migration flow)

4.1.4. Guest Workers

4.1.4.1. Guest Workers- legal, documented immigrants who has a work visa, usually short term. Examples are Europe allowing people to fill the void of people who died after world war 2

4.1.4.2. Most are abused at work because they are unaware of their rights despite the work of governments and international organizations.

4.1.4.3. The international flow of guest workers changes the ethnic, linguistic, and religious mosaic of the places where they go.

4.1.5. Refugees

4.1.5.1. Refugees are people who flee from there home with only the necessities due to it being an unsafe place to live. The journey for theses people are rough and most of the people flee to a country in the same region as their home country meaning the change isn't that far.

4.1.5.2. The 1951 refugee convention established an international law specifying who is a refugee and what rights they have. They define a refugee as "a person who has a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, etc. Since the establishment of this law, the refugee population has grown steadily.

4.1.5.3. Internally Displaced Persons(IDP)- people who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee. Tend to be uncounted as refugees. An example are the victims of Hurricane Katrina.

4.1.5.4. When a refugee meets the official criteria, they are eligible for assistance and possible Asylum- shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state.

4.1.5.5. Repatriation- a refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance on a government or non-governmental organization.The UN uses this process when they know it is safe to send refugees home

4.1.5.5.1. Regions of Dislocation

5. 2. Why Do People Migrate?

5.1. Forced Migration- human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.

5.2. Voluntary Migration- movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move.

5.3. Distinction between whether the migrant was forced or voluntary may be hard to distinguish. It can be easier to tell at a larger scale compared to a small one.

5.4. Men are more mobile and migrate farther than women due to more employment choices and the salary although this may vary for different countries

5.4.1. Forced Migration

5.4.1.1. The largest forced migration was the Atlantic slave trade which carried tens of millions of Africans to the Americas and Caribbean to be sold into slavery.

5.4.1.2. Other major forced migrations include Great Britain shipping tens of millions of convicts to Australia for 50 years, The US government taking land from native Americans, and the Soviet Union government moving millions of people who weren't Russian to other remote areas

5.4.1.3. Forced migration still happens today when illegal immigrants are discovered and forced to return back to their home country such as Haiti and Afghanistan.

5.4.2. Push and Pull Factors in Voluntary Migration

5.4.2.1. Laws of Migration- developed by a British demographer, Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants. 1. Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration 2. The majority of migrants move a short distance 3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations 4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas 5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

5.4.2.2. Ravenstein also posited an inverse relationship between the volume of migration and the distance between source and destination.his idea was an early observation of the Gravity Model- a mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them.

5.4.2.3. Push Factors- Negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale.

5.4.2.4. Pull Factors- Positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas.

5.4.2.5. A migrants decision is based off of these factors and they play out differently depending on the circumstances and scale.

5.4.2.6. Distance Decay-The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.

5.4.2.7. Prospective migrants are likely to feel much less certain about distant destinations than nearer ones

5.4.2.8. Migration streams may appear as long, unbroken routes but they consist of a series of stages in Step Migration- migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, each stage has a new set of pull factors that come into play,

5.4.2.9. Intervening opportunity- The presence of a nearer opportunity greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites far away, happened during the Great Migration.

5.4.3. Types of Push and Pull Factors

5.4.3.1. Every factor can either be a push or pull and matters most depends on the migrant and the circumstances surrounding the decision

5.4.3.1.1. Legal Status

5.4.3.1.2. Economic Conditions

5.4.3.1.3. Power Relationships

5.4.4. Political Circumstances

5.4.4.1. Politically driven migration flows are marked by both escape and expulsion. Throughout history oppressive regimes have endangered migration streams

5.4.5. Armed Conflict and War

5.4.5.1. This can cause many people to become permanent emigrants never being able to return home and fleeing to other countries for safety

5.4.6. Environmental Conditions

5.4.6.1. Environmental crises such as poor crops, earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions stimulate migration and some can bring long-term changes to the landscape making the return home difficult for migrators.

5.4.7. Culture and Traditions

5.4.7.1. People may migrate because they fear their culture will not survive a major political transition causing them to move somewhere they believe is safer for the culture.

5.4.8. Technological Advances

5.4.8.1. Modern forms of transportation and communications make it easier emigrate and doesn't make the journey as hazardous then traveling on foot.

5.4.8.2. Advances have strengthened the role of Kinship Links- types of push or pull factors that influence a migrants decision to go where family or friends have already found success.

5.4.8.3. Chain Migration- pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links.

5.4.8.4. Immigration Waves- a phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination.