Human Sciences

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Human Sciences by Mind Map: Human Sciences

1. Language & Concepts (Mahima)

1.1. How language transformed humanity

1.1.1. Language: a tool to put your thoughts into other people's brain.

1.1.2. irony - language is meant to increase communication between humans yet many languages has limited our communication

1.1.3. power of language acknowledge by govts banning certain phrases

1.1.4. social learning - learning from others by coping what others do

1.1.4.1. without sharing ideas through social learning and language then there is no improvement in quality of life.

1.1.4.1.1. because of social learning we can build on others ideas and can share knowlegde

1.1.4.2. social learning is visual theft.

1.1.4.2.1. can steal your best ideas without putting the time and effort to develop them

1.1.4.2.2. two options to fix problem that arose centuries ago when we were still neanderthals

1.1.5. as language developed people began to spread out

1.1.5.1. language changed as people moved away

1.1.5.1.1. ironically in areas of dense population there is more diverse language. eg papua new guinea

1.1.6. will inevitably need to reach a point where the world speaks one language so that ideas can flow more freely and encourage cooperation

1.2. the language of lying

1.2.1. hear 10-200 lies a die. spent history trying to detect them

1.2.1.1. used medieval torture methods, polygraph, blood pressure and breathing monitors,`voice stress analysers etc.

1.2.1.1.1. most con be fooled

1.2.2. we lie to paint abetter picture of ourselves. we try to connect our fantasies about ourselves to who we really are.

1.2.2.1. when you lie you are using a different language to when you are telling the truth

1.2.2.1.1. technique called linguistic analysis, has identified 4 common phrases used by liars.

1.3. difficult words to translate

1.3.1. almost impossible to accurately translate 'you'

1.3.1.1. many cultures/languages have different levels of formality when addressing someone.

1.3.1.1.1. you address different people in different ways through T-V distinction

1.3.1.2. in other cultures, you depends on the listener's gender

1.3.1.3. in other cases it depends upon the amount of people you are addressing

1.3.1.4. in some languages, there is a word for two people

1.3.1.5. some languages don't have a pronoun for you

1.3.1.6. in some languages, pronouns are guessed from context

1.4. how miscommunication happens

1.4.1. miscommunication can happen at any instance.

1.4.1.1. human communication is incredibly complex

1.4.2. what happens when we communicate?

1.4.2.1. transmission model

1.4.2.1.1. communication is the movement of a message from one person to another

1.4.2.2. transactional model

1.4.2.2.1. acknowledges the many challenges that occur in communication

1.4.2.3. when we communicate we tell our interpretation of our message in turn the listener hears his/her own interpretation of the message.

1.4.2.3.1. if we refer back to the game of catch but now instead of using a ball we use a lump of clay. As the lump is caught, each player imprints their own interpretations onto the message.

1.5. how to avoid miscommunication

1.5.1. 1. passive hearing is not the same as active listening

1.5.1.1. adjust your message to fit the context

1.5.2. 2. listen with your eyes, ears and gut

1.5.2.1. communication is more than just words

1.5.3. 3. take time to understand as you try to be understood.

1.5.3.1. communication is a two way street

1.5.4. 4. be aware of your personal perception filters

1.5.4.1. don't assume your perception is the objective truth

2. Scope & Application (Nairo)

2.1. Application

2.1.1. How to divide resources

2.1.1.1. Consider

2.1.1.1.1. fairness

2.1.1.1.2. equality

2.1.1.1.3. justice

2.1.1.2. How should one divide pizza?

2.1.2. How to divide money

2.1.2.1. Actual distributions of wealth and income

2.1.2.2. Ideal distributions of wealth an income

2.1.2.3. ideal vs reality

2.1.2.3.1. people underestimated the inequality of wealth distributions

2.2. Scope

2.2.1. biological, social and cultural aspects of human life

2.2.1.1. biological

2.2.1.1.1. evolution of humans

2.2.1.1.2. human behaviour

2.2.1.1.3. molecular and population genetics

2.2.1.1.4. ageing

2.2.1.2. social

2.2.1.2.1. population growth

2.2.1.2.2. ethics

2.2.1.2.3. human interaction with the environment

2.2.1.3. cultural

2.2.1.3.1. cultural diversity

2.2.2. studies

2.2.2.1. anthropology

2.2.2.1.1. study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present

2.2.2.2. communication

2.2.2.2.1. study of the processes of human communication

2.2.2.3. criminology

2.2.2.3.1. scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences and prevention of criminal behaviour

2.2.2.4. cultural studies

2.2.2.4.1. cultural analysis

2.2.2.5. economics

2.2.2.5.1. study of the production, distribution and the consumption of goods and services

2.2.2.6. education

2.2.2.6.1. acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, habits and beliefs

2.2.2.7. environment

2.2.2.7.1. human interaction with the environment

2.2.2.8. history

2.2.2.8.1. study of the past

2.2.2.9. human geography

2.2.2.9.1. study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and their interaction with the environement

2.2.2.10. international relations

2.2.2.10.1. study of the interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level

2.2.2.11. internet

2.2.2.11.1. global system of interconnected network

2.2.2.12. law

2.2.2.12.1. study of social rules

2.2.2.13. linguistics

2.2.2.13.1. study of language in terms of its form, meaning and context

2.2.2.14. media

2.2.2.14.1. study of the content, history and effects of various media

2.2.2.15. politics

2.2.2.15.1. analysis of political thoughts, political activities and political behaviour

2.2.2.16. psychology

2.2.2.16.1. science of behaviour and mind

2.2.2.17. social psychology

2.2.2.17.1. study of people's thoughts, feelings and behaviour

2.2.2.18. social work

2.2.2.18.1. concerns individuals, families, groups and communities

2.2.2.19. sociology

2.2.2.19.1. scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction and culture of everyday life

3. Methodology ( Laura)

3.1. Experimental Method

3.1.1. Reliability

3.1.1.1. Not as reliable as the natural science experiments.

3.1.1.1.1. Reason

3.2. Use of questionnaires

3.2.1. Simplified steps of creating a questionnaire

3.2.1.1. Question

3.2.1.2. Construct method of inquiry

3.2.1.3. Observation

3.2.1.4. Interpret and Reflect

3.2.1.5. Theoretical framework

3.2.2. Survey

3.2.2.1. Objectives

3.2.2.1.1. Reflect the intent of the scientific questions from the perspective of the survey methodology to be used to collect data for addressing these questions

3.2.2.2. Design a sample(DIFFERENT TYPES)

3.2.2.2.1. Purposive samples

3.2.2.2.2. Convenience samples

3.2.2.2.3. Quota samples

3.2.2.2.4. Other non-probability sampling

3.2.2.3. Develop survey instruments

3.2.2.4. Collect data

3.2.2.5. Preparing for analysis

3.2.2.5.1. Check that the values recorded for each variable are within the allowable range or set of possible values.

3.2.2.5.2. Address the issue of missing values in the data set.

3.2.2.5.3. Create a clearly documented list of variables and their meanings.

3.2.2.6. Calculating survey weights

3.2.2.7. Calculating Estimates

3.2.2.8. Reporting Results

3.3. Use of reason

3.3.1. To construct plausible theory consistent with other accepted knowledge in the field

3.4. Assumptions

3.4.1. Human rationality(economics)

3.4.1.1. Scenario Analysis

3.4.1.1.1. Instead of FORECASTS

3.4.1.2. Objectivity

3.4.1.2.1. Too complex--> has to use general diagrams or theories to predict

3.4.2. Law-like behaviours(psychology)

3.4.2.1. Difficulties

3.4.2.1.1. Predicting human behaviours

3.4.2.1.2. Law for large numbers

3.4.2.1.3. Considering the complexity of the real world situation

3.5. Use of statistical method

3.5.1. what bias to choose things like significance levels of tests

3.5.1.1. Reduce complexity

3.5.1.2. Fitted for general public

3.5.1.3. Won't be able to fit for everyone in the society

4. Historical Development (Hubert)

4.1. Paradigm Shifts

4.1.1. Criticised and replaced with new theories

4.1.1.1. Cultural

4.1.1.2. Interpretive

4.1.1.3. Postmodern Turns

4.1.1.4. Narrative

4.1.1.5. Economics (Behavioural Economics)

4.1.1.5.1. New Innovations

4.1.1.5.2. Understood through mathematics

4.1.1.6. Knowledge is built and shaped according to our aspirations

4.1.1.6.1. We live in a world where everything is based on someone's ideas

4.1.1.7. Happens when people don't accept the current environment as it is

4.1.1.7.1. Turn culture based on the subject of debate

4.1.1.7.2. When people want the world's ideas to turn into theirs

5. Personal Knowledge(Mo)

5.1. Responsibilities that rest upon by virtue of our knowledge

5.1.1. Consideration of moral application

5.1.2. Responsibility to share knowledge

5.2. Nature of contributions to shared knowledge

5.2.1. Explanations of humankind or human behaviour

5.2.1.1. Understanding of ourselves as an individual in a society

5.2.1.1.1. The anthropologist Franz BOAS defines the theory of Cultural Relativism, which says that the only culture an individual truly knows is that individual's own culture.

5.2.1.2. Reference to the intentional states that motivate the individual actions (Individualism)

5.2.2. Theories

5.2.2.1. action-theory explanation

5.2.2.1.1. Why do we do this ?

5.2.2.1.2. Understanding of the phenomena in a large scale

5.2.2.1.3. Predictions

5.3. Implications of Human Sciences for individual perspectives

5.3.1. Manipulation of human behaviour

5.3.1.1. Try to modify and control the way we are

5.3.1.2. Subjective

5.4. Assumptions underlying our own approach

5.4.1. Reliability

5.4.1.1. Personal Knowledge

5.4.1.1.1. Perception

5.4.1.1.2. Interpretation

5.4.1.2. Ethical considerations

5.4.2. Causation

5.4.2.1. Affecting factors

5.4.2.1.1. Psychological factors (environment or milieu)

5.4.2.1.2. Social factors (culture)

5.4.2.1.3. Biological factors (gender and age)