Unit 4 Legislative Branch

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Unit 4 Legislative Branch by Mind Map: Unit 4 Legislative Branch

1. Define a committee and describe one

1.1. A committee is a suborganization in Congress which works on a specific topic. Committees help divide the work of congress, and do most of the work in Congress as well. The Committee on Budget drafts the annual budget for congress and monitors federal spending and revenue.

2. Vocab

2.1. Gerrymandering: Drawing the boundaries when redistricting such that your party wins during an election

2.2. Representative (HoR): A person who works/represents the House of Representatives

2.2.1. Requirements:

2.2.1.1. At least 25 years old

2.2.1.2. U.S Citizen for 7 years

2.2.1.3. Must live in state where district is located

2.3. Senator: A person who works/represents the Senate

2.3.1. Requirements:

2.3.1.1. At least 30 years old

2.3.1.2. U.S Citizen for 9 years

2.3.1.3. Must live in state they are representing

2.4. Constituent: The people politicians have elected to represent

2.5. Majority Leader: The party in charge in either the HoR or Senate; serve as assistant to the Speaker of the House & helps plan the party's legislative program and directs floor debate

2.5.1. Serve as spokespersons for the party's position on issues

2.6. Minority Leader: The party not in charge in either the HoR or senate

2.7. Speaker of the House: The head of the majority party and higher rank than the majority leader in the HoR; makes rules about House procedures and establishes order to the House

2.8. Committee: A sub-organization of either the HoR or the Senate which tackles a specific topic or task

2.9. Apportionment: Distribution of representative among the states based on population of each of the states (How many representatives your state gets?)

2.10. Filibuster: A tactic used in the Senate to avoid from getting to a vote

2.11. Cloture: A way of stopping a filibuster and adding a time limit during Senate consideration

2.12. Whip: Official of a political party which works to obtain order and discipline in a legislation

2.12.1. Majority Whip: The whip leader of the party in charge and current position

2.12.2. Minority Whip: The whip leader of the party not in charge and current in position

2.13. Expressed/Delegated/Enumerated Power: The power given and detailed in Article 1 to the Legislative Branch

2.14. Implied/Unenumerated Power: Powers given that are not explicitly stated or given in the Constitution

2.15. Caucus

2.15.1. A meeting containing members and supporters of a specific political party

2.15.2. Members who share a common purpose or set of goals

2.16. Reapportionment: The redistribution of Congressional seats after the national census determines changes in population distribution in states

2.17. Congressional redistricting: The drawing, by state legislature, of congressional districts for those states with more than one representatives

2.18. Trustee: Vote based on their opinion

2.19. Delegate: Vote based on the constituents beliefs not their own

2.20. Pork Barrel Legislation: An attempt to provide funding or projects for member's home or district

2.21. Logrolling: An attempt to gain support from other members in return for their support on their legislation

3. Essay Questions

3.1. Interest groups: People who share a common interest and work together to promote and protect that interest by influencing government

3.1.1. Lobbyist: Someone who seeks to influence a member of government by persuading them 1 on 1

3.1.2. PACs (Political Action Committee): An organization that raises money privately to influence elections or legislation

4. Important People

4.1. Speaker of the House (HoR): Paul Ryan (R) Wisconsin

4.2. Presiding Officer of the Senate: U.S Vice President - Mike Pence

4.2.1. The main job of the Vice President in the Senate is to break a tie

4.3. President Pro Tempore: Senior member of the Majority Party - Orrin Hatch (R) Senator from Utah

4.4. Creator of Gerrymandering: Governor Elbridge Gerry of 1812 in Massachusetts (Created district that looked like a salamander - Gerry + salamander)

5. Notes

5.1. Congress

5.1.1. HoR

5.1.1.1. 435 members by population

5.1.1.2. 2 year term

5.1.1.2.1. Entire House elected every 2 years

5.1.1.3. At least 25 years old

5.1.1.4. Citizen for 7 years

5.1.1.5. Live in state where district is located

5.1.1.6. Smaller, by districts (the people)

5.1.1.7. Less prestige

5.1.1.8. About representing the people

5.1.1.8.1. Contains Speaker of the House - Paul Ryan

5.1.1.8.2. 2 Houses of Congress meet for terms of 2 years

5.1.2. Senate

5.1.2.1. 100 members (2 from each state)

5.1.2.2. 6 year term

5.1.2.2.1. Staggered terms with 1/3 of Senate elected every 2 years

5.1.2.3. At least 30 years old

5.1.2.4. Citizen for 9 years

5.1.2.5. Must live in state you are representing

5.1.2.6. Larger, entire state

5.1.2.7. More prestige

5.1.2.8. About representing the states

5.1.3. Committees

5.1.3.1. Where most work is accomplished in Congress

5.1.3.2. Divides work of Congress among multiple committees

5.1.3.3. Speeds passage of legislation - bills

5.1.3.4. Leadership

5.1.3.4.1. Chairperson - member of the majority party in each house

5.1.3.5. Members

5.1.3.5.1. Representative try to be on committees where they can influence public policy relating to their district/state

5.1.3.6. Types of Committees

5.1.3.6.1. Standing

5.1.3.6.2. Select

5.1.3.6.3. Joint

5.1.3.6.4. Conference

5.1.4. Congressman

5.1.4.1. Roles

5.1.4.1.1. Policymaker: Make public policy through the passage of legislation

5.1.4.1.2. Politician/Party member

5.1.4.1.3. Committee member

5.1.4.1.4. Committee member

5.1.4.1.5. Constituent

5.1.5. Elastic Clause

5.1.5.1. Grants Congress the power to pass all laws necessary to carry out the expressed list of powers

5.1.6. Non-Legislative Powers of Congress

5.1.6.1. Electoral powers

5.1.6.2. Amendment powers

5.1.6.2.1. Proposal of Amendment

5.1.6.2.2. Ratification of Amendment

5.1.6.3. Impeachment

5.1.6.4. Executive powers of the Senate (confirmation, ratify treaties)

5.1.6.5. Investigative/Oversight (Benghazi, Watergate)

5.1.7. Functions of Congress

5.1.7.1. Deliberate (debate)

5.1.7.2. Mediate - conflict/interest groups

5.1.7.3. Investigate - misconduct/corruption

5.1.7.4. Negotiate (power sharing)

5.1.7.5. Rival to the President

5.1.8. Whips

5.1.8.1. Help floor leaders by directing members in voting, informing members of impending votes, keeping track of vote counts and pressuring voters to voting with their party

5.2. How Bills become Laws

5.2.1. Bill

5.2.1.1. Introduced in House

5.2.1.1.1. Referred to Committee and Subcommittee

5.2.1.2. Introduced in Senate

5.2.1.2.1. Referred to Committee and Subcommittee

5.2.2. ANYONE can suggest a law

5.2.2.1. Only a MEMBER of Congress can propose the law to the HoR or Senate

5.2.2.1.1. Bills get name starting with S. or HR. - Senate or HoR

5.3. 17th Amendment: Allows for the direct election of Senators by people of the state

5.3.1. Voting act of 1965 prohibits racial discrimination during voting

5.4. Riders; Additions to passing bills which have no relation to the actual bill

6. Expressed powers of congress

6.1. -The power to establish rules to allow foreign-born immigrants to become citizens of the United States -The power to make rules for bankruptcies -The power to punish counterfeiters -The power to set up a national post office -The power to provide for copyrights and patents to protect the work of inventors and artists -The power to organize all federal courts below the Supreme Court -The power to punish pirates -The power to hire pirates to attack foreign enemies -The power to make rules to regulate the conduct of the armed forces -The power to call out the militia to defend the country from invasions or insurrections -The power to organize and discipline the militia -The power to govern the federal capital (Washington, DC) -The power to acquire lands from the states for use by the federal government

6.2. Most Important Powers

6.2.1. The power to tax, to borrow money, to regulate commerce and currency, to declare war, and to raise armies and maintain the navy