Industrial Revolution in America

Learn more about americas industrial revolution, why it took place and what happened. This mind map also presents how America changed and which inventions and technologies were created.

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Industrial Revolution in America by Mind Map: Industrial Revolution in America

1. The causes of the first industrial revolution in America

1.1. Embargo Act of 1807

1.1.1. Meaning

1.1.1.1. Prohibited American merchant ships from leaving for foreign ports and prohibited foreign vessels from carrying American goods out of American ports.

1.1.2. Result

1.1.2.1. Of the Napoleonic Wars between France and England

1.1.3. Intention

1.1.3.1. To cut both England and France off from the American market

1.1.3.2. The hope was that England and France would suffer economically

1.1.3.2.1. Then cease to attack American merchant ships and stop blocking each other from trading with the Americans.

1.1.4. Effects

1.1.4.1. The act had no effect on the British or French economy

1.1.4.2. Completely devastated the American economy

1.1.4.2.1. But the lack of access to foreign goods forced the Americans to begin producing more of their own goods.

2. The causes of the second industrial revolution in America were

2.1. Natural Resources

2.1.1. The United States had a number of natural resources, such as timber, water, coal, iron, copper, silver and gold.

2.1.2. Industries took advantage of these natural resources to manufacture a number of goods to put on the market.

2.2. Railroads

2.2.1. Railroad networks in the U.S. promoted the growth of industries like coal and steel and sped up the transportation of goods to market

2.2.1.1. Encouraging mass production, mass consumption and economic specialization

2.3. Abundant Labor Supply

2.3.1. Railroad work also attracted a large number of immigrant workers to the United States

2.3.1.1. Provided an abundant labor supply for growing businesses

2.4. Immigration

2.4.1. The immigrants who migrated to America were young

2.4.2. Hard workers who were not afraid of risk and arrived determined to make something of themselves

2.5. Laizze-Fair Politics

2.5.1. The lack of government regulation allowed businesses to flourish and grow at a rapid pace

2.5.2. Business owners had full control of their companies without government interference

2.5.2.1. It created widespread environmental problems and poor working conditions

2.6. New Inventions

2.6.1. In the second half of the 19th century, new inventions brought about even more industrialization.

2.6.1.1. The invention of electricity and the light bulb allowed factories to stay open longer which vastly increased production volumes.

2.6.1.1.1. Textile mill working all night in New Bedford, Massachusetts, photo by Jack Delano, circa 1941

2.6.1.2. Electricity led to the invention of the electric motor.

2.6.1.2.1. Which greatly improved transportation and led the electric trolley and the electric subway train.

2.6.1.3. Henry Ford’s assembly line and the rise of mass production after the turn of the 20th century also spurred industrialization.

2.6.1.4. The total manufacturing output of the United States was 28 times higher in 1929 than it was in 1859.

3. War of 1812

3.1. The War of 1812 led to a British blockade of the United States eastern coastline

3.2. Cut off from the sea, Americans began focuses more heavily on manufacturing in order to make money and create the goods they couldn’t get through trade.

4. Inventions and Technologies of the Industrial Revolution in America

4.1. Cotton Gin, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793

4.2. McCormick Reaper, invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1831

4.3. Steel plow, invented by a blacksmith named John Deere in 1837

4.4. Telegraph, invented by Samuel Morse in 1844

4.5. Vulcanized rubber, invented by Charles Goodyear in 1844

4.6. Sewing machine, invented by Elias Howe in 1846

4.7. Safety break for elevators, invented by Elisah Otis in 1853

4.8. Bessemer process, invented by Henry Bessemer in 1856

4.9. First telephone, patented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876

4.10. First roller coaster, patented by Edwin Prescott in 1898

4.11. First airplane, Orville and Wilber Wright invented the first plane that was not powered by wind in 1903

4.12. Model T, Henry Ford invented the Ford Model T automobile in 1908

5. How the Industrial Revolution Changed America

5.1. Caused rapid urbanization in America

5.1.1. In 1800, only 6 percent of the population of America lived in cities but by 1900, that number had increased to 40 percent

5.2. Caused a rise in unskilled labor

5.2.1. Prior to the 19th century, most Americans who were not employed in agriculture performed a skilled trade

5.2.1.1. The use of child labor also led to new labor laws, such as the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act.

5.2.2. Poor working conditions and low wages led to the growth of labor unions

5.2.2.1. Workers had little political support due to the fact that many of them were immigrants and women who were not allowed to vote

5.3. New economic changes led to social and cultural transformations

5.3.1. A new middle class/bourgeoisie

5.3.1.1. Consisted of entrepreneurs, businessmen, law and medical professionals

6. Overview

6.1. Impact

6.1.1. The Industrial Revolution completely transformed the United States until it eventually grew into the largest economy in the world and became the most powerful global superpower.

6.2. Where

6.2.1. The industrial revolution occurred in a number of places across the world including England, North America, Continental Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia.

6.3. First Phase

6.3.1. Took place between 1750 and 1850

6.3.1.1. Began in England and then spread to Continental Europe and North America

6.4. Second Phase

6.4.1. Took place between 1850 and 1914

6.4.1.1. Began in America and then spread to Europe

6.5. When Was the Industrial Revolution in America?

6.5.1. Full-scale Industrialization didn’t occur in America until two textile manufacturers, Samuel Slater and Francis Cabot Lowell, introduced mechanized textile manufacturing to the United States in the late 1790s and early 1800s.

6.6. Where Did the Industrial Revolution Take Place in America?

6.6.1. The American industrial revolution began in New England.

6.6.1.1. Several large-scale textiles mills were established in the region during the late 18th and early 19th century which quickly led to widespread industrialization in the region:

6.6.1.1.1. The Beverly Cotton Manufactury in Massachusetts in 1787 Slater Mill in Rhode Island in 1790 Waltham Mill in Massachusetts in 1814

6.6.2. Massachusetts’s role in the industrial revolution was pivotal, particularly because of its textile mills.

6.6.2.1. It is often referred to as the “cradle of the American industrial revolution.”

7. Timeline of the First Industrial Revolution of America

7.1. 1825

7.1.1. The Erie Canal opens and allows goods to flow between the Great Lakes and New York City.

7.1.1.1. Opening of the Erie Canal

7.2. 1828

7.2.1. Work began on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the nation’s first commercial railroad.

7.2.1.1. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad

7.3. 1830s

7.3.1. Women made up 80% of the textile mill work force in America.

7.3.1.1. 1830s Textile Mill

7.4. 1832

7.4.1. Cholera Pandemic in New York state caused by water pollution of densely populated urban slums.

7.5. 1837

7.5.1. The Panic of 1837

7.5.1.1. Second Bank of the United states closed, millions of dollars in bank notes, rising business failures, high unemployment rate

7.6. 1844

7.6.1. Samuel F.B. Morse develops the first functional telegraph.

7.6.1.1. Painted portrait of American artist and inventor Samuel Morse (1791 - 1872)