REPORTED SPEECH

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REPORTED SPEECH by Mind Map: REPORTED SPEECH

1. The police said "Stop, or I'll shoot." The police told me to stop or hewould shoot. My mum said "Areyougoing to come home early?" My mum askedwhetherIwas going to come home early. Teacher asked my friend: "When hasAmerica been discovered?" Teacher asked my friend when Americahad been discovered. Teacher asked me "Canyou tell me when America has been discovered?" Teacher asked me if Icould tell her when America had been discovered.

2. Genel geçer bir olayı anlatıldığı bir konu aktarılıyorsa geniş zaman ile ifade edilir. Example: – The repairman said that electrical repairs are very dangerous. Tamirci, elektrik tamiratlarının çok tehlikeli olduğunu söyledi.)

3. Cümle uyumu için zamir ve zaman zarflarını değiştirmek; Aktarılan konuşma cümlesinde, cümlede geçen nesne veya konu ile zamirin uyumunu sağlamak için zamir de değiştirilmelidir. Example: She said, “I want to bring my children.” (Çocuklarımı getirmek istiyorum”, dedi. – She said she wanted to bring her children. (Çocuklarını getirmek istediğini söyledi.) – Jack said, “My wife went with me to the show.” (Şova karımla birlikte gittik.), dedi. Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show. (Jack, şova karısıyla birlikte gittiğini söyledi.)

4. Söz konusu aktarma cümlesinin eylemi geçmiş zamana ait ise kurulan cümle de geçmiş zaman ile yapılır. Ancak genellikle eylem cümlesi aktarma cümlesinden önceki zamana aittir. Example: – He said the exam was very difficult. (Sınavın çok zor olduğunu söyledi.) – She said she worked in the factory every night.; Her gece fabrikada çalıştığını söylüyor. – Özkan said he came to hospital every morning.; Özkan her sabah hastaneye geldiğini söyledi.

5. Eğer aktarılan eylem; geniş zaman, geçmiş zaman veya gelecek zaman ile ifade ediliyorsa, kullanılan zaman aynı kalır, değişmez. Exmaple: – He says the exam is very difficult.; Sınavın zor olduğunu söylüyor. – She has said that she works in the factory every night.; Her gece fabrikada çalıştığını döylemişti. – Özkan will say that he comes to hospital every morning.; Özkan her sabah hastaneye geldiğini söylüyor.Eğer aktarılan eylem; geniş zaman, geçmiş zaman veya gelecek zaman ile ifade ediliyorsa, kullanılan zaman aynı kalır, değişmez. Exmaple: – He says the exam is very difficult.; Sınavın zor olduğunu söylüyor. – She has said that she works in the factory every night.; Her gece fabrikada çalıştığını döylemişti. – Özkan will say that he comes to hospital every morning.; Özkan her sabah hastaneye geldiğini söylüyor.

6. Konuşulan anı; geniş zaman, geçmiş zaman veya gelecek zamanla uyumlu hale getirmek için zaman zarflarını da değiştirmek gerekir. Örneğin: – She said, “I want to bring my children tomorrow.” (Çocuklarımı yarın getirmek istiyorum), dedi. (Çocuklarını yarın getirmek istediğini söyledi.), olur. – Jack said, “My wife went with me to the show yesterday.” (Dün şova karımla birlikte gittik), dedi. (Jack, dün şova karısıyla birlikte gittiğini söyledi.)

7. Indirect Questions Soruları aktarırken özellikle cümlelerin dizilişine dikkat etmek gerekir. Evet/Hayır ile başlayan soru cümlelerini aktarırken (if) “eğer” kullanılır. Niçin, nerede, ne zaman gibi soru kelimelerini kullanırken, cümleye bu soru kelimeleriyle başlamak gerekir. Örneğin: – She asked, “Do you want to come with me?” “Benimle gelmek ister misin?” diye sordu. She asked me if I wanted to come with her. “Bana, onunla gidip gitmeyeceğimi sordu.” olur. – Dave asked, “Where did you go last weekend?” Dave, “Geçen hafta nereye gittin?” diye sordu. Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend. “Dave,geçen hafta nereye gittiğimi sordu.” olur. – He asked, “Why are you studying English?”Niçin İngilizce çalışıyorsun? diye sordu. She asked me why I was studying English. “Bana niçin İngilizce çalıştığımı sordu.” olur. Aşağıdaki tabloda aktarılmış cümleler, geçmiş zamanda kullanılmıştır. “*” İşaretlenmiş cümlelere özellikle dikkat edin. Not: Geçmiş zaman, yakın geçmiş zaman ve past perfect zaman da dahil olmak üzere hepsi past perfect tense çevrilmiştir.Indirect Questions Soruları aktarırken özellikle cümlelerin dizilişine dikkat etmek gerekir. Evet/Hayır ile başlayan soru cümlelerini aktarırken (if) “eğer” kullanılır. Niçin, nerede, ne zaman gibi soru kelimelerini kullanırken, cümleye bu soru kelimeleriyle başlamak gerekir. Örneğin: – She asked, “Do you want to come with me?” “Benimle gelmek ister misin?” diye sordu. She asked me if I wanted to come with her. “Bana, onunla gidip gitmeyeceğimi sordu.” olur. – Dave asked, “Where did you go last weekend?” Dave, “Geçen hafta nereye gittin?” diye sordu. Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend. “Dave,geçen hafta nereye gittiğimi sordu.” olur. – He asked, “Why are you studying English?”Niçin İngilizce çalışıyorsun? diye sordu. She asked me why I was studying English. “Bana niçin İngilizce çalıştığımı sordu.” olur. Aşağıdaki tabloda aktarılmış cümleler, geçmiş zamanda kullanılmıştır. “*” İşaretlenmiş cümlelere özellikle dikkat edin. Not: Geçmiş zaman, yakın geçmiş zaman ve past perfect zaman da dahil olmak üzere hepsi past perfect tense çevrilmiştir.

8. Direct SpeechIndirect Speech He said, “I live in Paris.” “Paris’ te yaşıyorum.” dedi. He said he lived in Paris. ”Paris’te yaşadığını söyledi.” He said, “I am cooking dinner.” “Akşam yemeğini pişiriyorum”, dedi He said he was cooking dinner. ”Akşam yemeğini pişirdiğini söyledi.” He said, “I have visited London twice.” “Londra’yı iki kez ziyaret ettim”, dedi. He said he had visited London twice.” Londrayı iki kez ziyaret ettiğini söyledi.”Direct SpeechIndirect Speech He said, “I live in Paris.” “Paris’ te yaşıyorum.” dedi. He said he lived in Paris. ”Paris’te yaşadığını söyledi.” He said, “I am cooking dinner.” “Akşam yemeğini pişiriyorum”, dedi He said he was cooking dinner. ”Akşam yemeğini pişirdiğini söyledi.” He said, “I have visited London twice.” “Londra’yı iki kez ziyaret ettim”, dedi. He said he had visited London twice.” Londrayı iki kez ziyaret ettiğini söyledi.”

9. He said he might go to Denver.”Denver’lara gidebileceğini söyledi.” * He said, “I must give Ken a call.” ”Ken’i aramalıyım,” dedi. He said he had to give Ken a call. ”Keven’ı araması gerektiğini söyledi.” * He said, “I have to give Ken a call.” “Ken’ i aramam gerekiyor”, dedi. He said he had to give Ken a call. . ”Keven’ı araması gerektiğini söyledi.” * He said, “I should see a doctor” “Doktora görünmeliyim”, dedi. He said he should see a doctor. ”Doktora görünmesi gerektiğini söyledi.” He said he might go to Denver.”Denver’lara gidebileceğini söyledi.” * He said, “I must give Ken a call.” ”Ken’i aramalıyım,” dedi. He said he had to give Ken a call. ”Keven’ı araması gerektiğini söyledi.” * He said, “I have to give Ken a call.” “Ken’ i aramam gerekiyor”, dedi. He said he had to give Ken a call. . ”Keven’ı araması gerektiğini söyledi.” * He said, “I should see a doctor” “Doktora görünmeliyim”, dedi. He said he should see a doctor. ”Doktora görünmesi gerektiğini söyledi.”

10. here - there (burası - orası) this - that (bu - şu) go - come (gitmek - gelmek)

11. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH He said, “I am coming today. She said she was going the next day. They replied, “we'll leave tonight. They replied they would leave that night. We said, “We're going to do it the day after tomorrow. We said we were going to do it in two days' time. The mayor said, “These streets will be completed next week / next year. The mayor said the roads would be compleded the following week / following year. Tuncay said, “We had a very large dinner yesterday. Tuncay said they had had a very large dinner the day before. His father said, “I painted all the walls the day before yesterday. His father said he had painted all the walls two days before.

12. Henry said: "I play tennis." Henry said he played tennis. "I am playing tennis." Henry said he was playing tennis "I played tennis." Henry said he had played tennis. "I was playing tennis." Henry said he had been playing tennis. "I have played tennis." Henry said he had played tennis. "I have been playing tennis." Henry said he had been playing tennis. "I had played tennis." Henry said he had played tennis. "I had been playing tennis." Henry said he had been playing tennis. "I will play tennis." Henry said he would play tennis. "I will be playing tennis." Henry said he would be playing tennis. "I am going to play tennis." Henry said he was going to play tennis. "I can play tennis." Henry said he could play tennis. "I may play tennis." Henry said he might play tennis. "I might play tennis." Henry said he might play tennis. "I must play tennis." Henry said he had to play tennis. "I have to play tennis." Henry said he had to play tennis. "I should play tennis." Henry said he should play tennis. "Play tennis!" Henry told me to play tennis. "Do you play tennis?" Henry asked (me) if I played tennis. "What do you play?" Henry asked (me) what I played.

13. will yerine would can yerine could may yerine might must yerine had to kullanılır.

14. İnfinivite

15. Quoted Speech Reported Speech Today That day this morning (evening...) that morning(evening...) these days (months, weeks...) those days (months, weeks...) now then ago (two days ago...) before (two days before) last month (week...) the month before (week...) or the previous month (week...) next month (week...) the following month (week...) yesterday the day before or the previous day tomorrow the next day or the following day

16. accuse apologise complain inform predict state admit ask decide insist promise suggest advise beg demand inquire realize think allege boast deny invite remark want agree claim explain offer remember warn announce comment imply order reply wonder

17. DOLAYLI ANLATIMDA ZAMANLARIN DEĞİŞİMİ Simple Present Simple Past "I never get up late," he said. He said (that) he never got up late. Present Continuous Past Continuous "I'm working on my thesis," he said. He said (that) he was working on his thesis. Present Perfect Past Perfect "I've applied for a job," he said. He said (that) he had applied for a job. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous "I've been working for two hours," he said. He said (that) he had been working for two hours. Simple Past Past Perfect "I stayed at home last night," he said. He said (that) he had stayed at home the previous night. Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous "I was working in Ankara last year," he said. He said that he had been working in Ankara the previous year. am/is/are going to was/were going to shall/will should/would should/would should/would can could/would be able to could could must , have to had to must, have to (future necessity) must/had to/would have to must (deduction) must don't have to didn't have to mustn't wasn't, weren't to do/mustn't should/ought to/had better should/ought to/had better may might might might used to used to

18. Simple present Simple past "I always drink coffee", she said She said that she always drank coffee. Present continuous Past continuous "I am reading a book", he explained. He explained that he was reading a book Simple past Past perfect "Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday. Present perfect Past perfect "I have been to Spain", he told me. He told me that he had been to Spain. Past perfect Past perfect "I had just turned out the light," he explained. He explained that he had just turned out the light. Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous They complained, "We have been waiting for hours". They complained that they had been waiting for hours. Past continuous Past perfect continuous "We were living in Paris", they told me. They told me that they had been living in Paris. Future Present conditional "I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said. He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday. Future continuous Conditional continuous She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday". She said that she would be using the car next Friday.

19. ü

20. Zaman ve yer zarfları değişikliğe uğrayabilir. Here = there There = there Now = then, at that moment, Yesterday = the day before, the previous day Today = that day Tomorrow = the following day, the next day,the day after This = the That = that These = those Those = those Ago = before Next (week, month, year...)= the following (week, month, year) Next year = the year after. This = that Tonight = that night Last (year, month, week...) = The (year, month , week...) before.

21. irekt Speech - Direkt Anlatım Reported Speech – Rapor Edilen make (makes) made is(am) making was making are were will would have/has made had made shall/will make should/would make should/would make should/would have made should/would (kibar anlatım veya istek) değişmez must had to mustn’t wasn’t/weren’t/ had to can could could could may might

22. 13- Introducing verbs = Takdim fiilleri : Say ve tell haricinde: Agree = kabul etmek Accuse (of) = suçlanmak Add = eklemek Argue = tartışmak Answer = cevaplamak Announce = İlan etmek Assure = Temin etmek, güvence vermek Admit= Kabul etmek, teslim etmek Advice = Tavsiyede bulunmak,bildirmek, Ask = sormak, Apologize (for) = Özür dilemek Boast = Övünmek, böbürlenmek Declare = deklare etmek, ilan etmek Grumble = Şikayet etmek, söylenmek Murmur = Söylenmek, mırıldanmak Claim = iddia etmek, Deny = İnkar etmek Insist on = Israr etmek wonder = merak etmek, öğrenmek istemek , want to know = bilmek istemek , enquire = soruşturmak, exclaim = haykırmak offer = teklif etmek, önermek, suggest = işaret etmek-, klif etmek, eri sürmek, stress = vurgulamak, underline = altını çizmek, önemle belirtmek, suppose = varsaymak, farzetmek, observe = gözlemlemek guess = tahmin etmek, complain = şikayet etmek, confess = itiraf etmek, conclude = karara varmak,sonucuna varmak, predict = tahmin etmek, point out = işaret etmek Refuse = reddetmek Remind = hatırlatmak Reply = yanıt vermek Promise = söz vermek Threaten = tehdit etmek İndicate : belirtmek, göstermek, işaret etmek

23. 15- Yardımcı Fiillerde Dolaylı Anlatım Direct speech Reported speech CAN COULD I can walk He said(that) he could walk MAY MIGHT I may walk He said(that) he might walk WILL WOULD I will walk He said(that) he would walk MUST HAD TO I must walk He said (that)he had to walk

24. ► Emir, tavsiye, rica ve teklif cümleleri aşağıdaki filler kullanılarak aktarılır. - advise (tavsiye etmek) - ask (rica etmek) - command (emretmek) - order (emretmek) - forbid (yasaklamak) - remind (hatırlatmak) - warn (uyarmak) - If I were you, I would buy a new one”, he said. (O, "Yerinde olsam yeni bir tane alırım," dedi.) - He advised me to buy a new one. (Yeni bir tane almamı tavsiye etti.) “Would you wait a little for me? ” I said. ("Beni biraz bekler misin?" dedim.) - I asked him to wait a little for me. (Beni biraz beklemesini rica ettim.) - She said “Would you like to come to my party, Peter?” (O, "Partime gelmek istermisin Peter," dedi.) - She invited Peter to her party. (Peter'i partisine davet etti.) - The general said, “Keep off the new tank.” (General “Yeni tanktan uzak durun” dedi.) - The general ordered them to keep of the new tank. (General yeni tanktan uzak durmalarını emretti.)

25. Tense Direct Speech Reported Speech present simple I like ice cream She said (that) she liked ice cream. present continuous I am living in London She said (that) she was living in London. past simple I bought a car She said (that) she had bought a car OR She said (that) she bought a car. past continuous I was walking along the street She said (that) she had been walking along the street. present perfect I haven't seen Julie She said (that) she hadn't seen Julie. past perfect* I had taken English lessons before She said (that) she had taken English lessons before. will I'll see you later She said (that) she would see me later. would* I would help, but..” She said (that) she would help but... can I can speak perfect English She said (that) she could speak perfect English. could* I could swim when I was four She said (that) she could swim when she was four. shall I shall come later She said (that) she would come later. should* I should call my mother She said (that) she should call her mother might* I might be late She said (that) she might be late must I must study at the weekend She said (that) she must study at the weekend OR She said she had to study at the weekend