Geriatric Aging Process

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Geriatric Aging Process by Mind Map: Geriatric Aging Process

1. Respiratory

1.1. Effects of Aging

1.1.1. cough reduction

1.1.1.1. decreased ability to expel mucus and foreign objects

1.1.1.1.1. infections

1.1.2. lungs reduce in size and weight

1.1.3. decreased elastic recoil

1.1.4. alveoli less elastic

1.1.5. increase in residual volume

1.1.5.1. reduction in vital capacity

1.1.5.1.1. decreased maximum breathing capacity

1.1.6. downward nose rotation

1.1.6.1. mouth breathing

1.1.6.1.1. snoring

1.1.6.1.2. sleep apnea

2. Circulatory

2.1. Effects of Aging

2.1.1. heart valves thicker and more rigid

2.1.1.1. incomplete valve closer

2.1.1.1.1. murmurs

2.1.2. Aorta becomes dilated

2.1.2.1. slight ventricular hypertrophy

2.1.3. calcification and reduced vessel elasticity

2.1.3.1. hypertension

2.1.3.1.1. a-ifb

2.1.3.2. atherosclerosis

2.1.3.2.1. CHF

2.1.4. less sensitive baroreceptor regulation of blood pressure

2.1.4.1. orthostatic hypotension

2.1.4.1.1. increased fall risk

2.1.4.2. postprandial hypotension

2.1.5. myocardial muscles are less efficient

2.1.5.1. decreased cardiac output when demand increases

3. Nervous

3.1. Effects of Aging

3.1.1. loss of nerve cell mass

3.1.1.1. brain weight decreases

3.1.2. number of dendrites decline

3.1.3. demyelinization

3.1.3.1. response/reaction times slower

3.1.3.1.1. balance issues

3.1.3.2. reflexes become weaker

3.1.4. decrease in cerebral blood flow

3.1.4.1. severe decrease in cerebral blood flow

3.1.4.1.1. vascular dementia

3.1.5. plaques, tangles, atrophy of the brain

3.1.6. slowing in central processing

3.1.6.1. delay in time required to perform tasks

3.1.7. number and sensitivity of sensory receptors decrease

3.1.7.1. decrease in tactile sensation

3.1.7.1.1. increased risk for burns

3.1.8. decline in cranial nerve function

3.1.8.1. decreased taste and smell

4. Elimination

4.1. Effects of Aging

4.1.1. hypertrophy of the bladder muscle

4.1.1.1. decreases ability to expand

4.1.1.2. reduces storage capacity

4.1.1.2.1. daytime urinary frequency

4.1.1.2.2. nocturia

4.1.2. kidney filtration decreases

4.1.2.1. decreased ability to eliminate drugs

4.1.2.1.1. increased BUN levels

4.1.2.1.2. adverse drug reactions

4.1.3. weaker bladder muscle

4.1.3.1. stress incontinence

4.1.4. inefficient neurological control over bladder muscle

4.1.4.1. increased risk for incontinenece

4.1.4.1.1. bed sores

4.1.4.2. urinary retention

4.1.4.2.1. females

4.1.4.2.2. males

4.1.5. increase renal threshold for glucose

4.1.5.1. false negative glucose in urine results

5. Gastrointestinal

5.1. Effects of Aging

5.1.1. atrophy of the lounge and taste buds

5.1.1.1. *add salt to food*

5.1.1.1.1. increased blood pressure

5.1.2. saliva production decreases

5.1.2.1. swallowing may be difficult

5.1.2.1.1. increased risk for aspiration

5.1.3. weaker esophageal contractions and sphincter

5.1.3.1. presbyesophogus

5.1.3.1.1. increased risk for hiatial or sliding hernia

5.1.4. esophageal and stomach morality decreases

5.1.4.1. risk for aspiration and indigestion

5.1.5. decreased elasticity of the stomach

5.1.5.1. reduced food accommodation

5.1.5.1.1. malnourishment

5.1.6. decline of HCL production

5.1.6.1. gastric irritation

5.1.6.2. interference with the absorption of calcium, iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12

5.1.6.2.1. osteoporosis

5.1.6.2.2. anemia

5.1.7. decline of pepsin production

5.1.7.1. interference with protein absorbtion

5.1.7.1.1. sarcopenia

5.1.8. sensory perception decreases

5.1.8.1. constipation

5.1.8.2. incomplete bowel emptying

5.1.9. bile salt synthesis decreases

5.1.9.1. increase risk for gallstones

5.1.10. pancreas changes

5.1.10.1. digestion of fat affected

6. Musculoskeletal

6.1. Effects of aging

6.1.1. number of muscle fibers decrease

6.1.1.1. decreased body strength

6.1.1.2. endurance declines

6.1.2. connective tissue changes

6.1.2.1. reduced flexibility of joints and muscles

6.1.3. muscle protein degeneration

6.1.3.1. sarcopenia

6.1.4. degeneration of extrapyramidal system

6.1.4.1. tremors

6.1.5. deterioration of cartilage surface of joints

6.1.5.1. limit joint activity and motion

6.1.6. decreased mobility

6.1.6.1. bed sores

6.1.6.2. deconditioning

7. Not effects of Aging

7.1. elminiation

7.1.1. incontinence

7.2. nervous

7.2.1. Intelligence

7.3. endocrine

7.3.1. protein bound iodine levels

7.4. reproductive

7.4.1. men

7.4.1.1. maintain a erection

7.4.1.2. ejaculation

7.4.1.3. testosterone production

7.4.2. women

7.4.2.1. endometrium response to hormonal stimulation

7.5. circulatory

7.5.1. resting heart rate

7.5.2. tunica adventitia changes

8. Sensation

8.1. reduced elasticity of lens

8.1.1. presbyopia

8.2. loss of photoreceptor cells

8.2.1. light perception threshold decreases

8.2.2. light adaptation takes longer

8.2.3. difficulty with night vision

8.3. alterations in blood supply to the retina

8.3.1. macular degeneration

8.4. opacification of the lens

8.4.1. cataract development

8.5. less efficient reabsorption of intraocular fluid

8.5.1. increased glaucoma risk

8.6. loss of hair cells and blood supply in inner ear

8.6.1. presbycusis

8.7. smell and taste acuity decrease

8.8. tactile sensation reduced

9. Reproductive

9.1. Effects of Aging

9.1.1. male

9.1.1.1. prostate enlargement

9.1.1.1.1. urinary frequency

9.1.1.1.2. increased risk for prostate cancer

9.1.1.2. atrophy of testes

9.1.1.3. seminiferous tubule increase fibrosis

9.1.1.4. connective tissue replaces muscle

9.1.2. female

9.1.2.1. vaginal canal becomes thin, avascular, and less natural lubrication

9.1.2.1.1. increased risk for injury such as a tear

9.1.2.2. more alkaline PH

9.1.2.2.1. infections

9.1.2.3. cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes atrophy

9.1.2.4. decreased estrogen production

9.1.2.4.1. osteoporosis

10. Immune

10.1. Effects of Aging

10.1.1. depressed immune function

10.1.1.1. infections

10.1.1.1.1. Influenza

10.1.1.1.2. Pneumonia

10.1.1.1.3. tuberculosis

10.1.2. thymic mass decreases

10.1.3. T-cell activity decreases

10.1.4. pro-inflammatory cytokines occur

10.1.4.1. atherosclerosis

10.1.4.2. diabetes

10.1.4.3. osteoporosis

11. Endocrine

11.1. Effects of Aging

11.1.1. decreased thyroid gland activity

11.1.1.1. decreased BMR

11.1.1.1.1. Increased risk for obesity

11.1.2. insufficient insulin release

11.1.2.1. hyperglycemia is common

11.1.2.1.1. glaucoma, heart disease, kidney, nerve damage

11.1.3. less aldosterone is produced