Food Flavour

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Food Flavour by Mind Map: Food Flavour

1. Description

1.1. property of a food or beverage that causes the simultaneuos reaction of taste on the tongue and odour in the olfactory centre of the nose

1.2. a collective sensory experience resulting from the combination of the four basic tastes (+umami ), aroma and physical factors.

2. Classification

2.1. Fruit flavours

2.2. Vegetable flavours

2.3. Spice flavours

2.4. Beverage flavours

2.5. Meat flavours

2.6. Fat flavours

2.7. Cooked flavours

2.8. Empyreumatic flavours

2.9. Strench flavours

3. Delivery systems for flavours

3.1. Neat

3.1.1. e.g.fruit juice/concentrate, fruit in jam-making

3.2. Solutions

3.2.1. Oil soluble

3.2.2. Solutions in vegetable oils, animal fats

3.2.3. Water soluble

3.2.4. Solutions in alcohol,propylene glycol,gylcerin

3.3. Emulsions

3.3.1. Gum arabic,modified starch-stabilized

3.3.2. Emulsifier-stabilized

3.4. Solids

3.4.1. Encapsulated

3.4.1.1. e.g. encapsulated oleoresins & essential oils

4. Flavour enhance

4.1. Flavour enhancement

4.1.1. increasing overall perception of flavour

4.1.2. improving the quality of flavour

4.1.3. making flavour nicer

4.1.4. delivering on the promise

4.1.5. making the flavour more distinct, pleasant & noticeable

4.1.6. reinforce the character of the main flavour

4.1.7. improving the liking or perception of a flavour

4.1.8. may impart taste and flavour of food

4.1.9. reinforce the character of the main flavour

4.2. Flavour potentiator/enhancers

4.2.1. Definition

4.2.1.1. A compound with no intrinsic flavour of its own, but with the ability to enhance the perception of flavour

4.2.2. Constituents

4.2.2.1. proteinaceous substances composed of either L-amino acids (like MSG) or of purine ribonucleoside 5-monophosphates with 6-oxy group, sodium chloride

4.2.3. Examples

4.2.3.1. Monosodium glutamate(MSG)

4.2.3.1.1. sodium salt of glutamic acid

4.2.3.1.2. produced through fermentation(corynbacterium glutamicum) of variuos substrates

4.2.3.1.3. functions: to enhance flavour and lifts savoury foods

4.2.3.1.4. found in yeast extract and hydrolyzed vegetable protein(HVP)

4.2.3.1.5. may lost effectiveness at high temp and pH range is within 5.5-8.0

4.2.3.2. Yeast extracts

4.2.3.2.1. produced through hydrolysis of peptide bonds

4.2.3.2.2. autolyzed yeast- yeast that has been self digested

4.2.3.2.3. autolyzed yeast extract results from removing the insoluble cell wall sacs and leaves a high-protein,water-soluble product.

4.2.3.2.4. the composition of AA,peptides,CHO, and salt provide a savory flavor.e.g.in sauces

4.2.3.3. Hydrolyzed plant and vegetable protein(HPP/HVP)-meaty-brothy flavour

4.2.3.3.1. HVP consist of 40-45% salt,9-12% glutamic acid & other flavouring

4.2.3.3.2. maufactured by acid hydrolysis of high- protein fractions from variuos grains and other plant materials.e.g. soybean,corn,etc

4.2.3.3.3. the enzymatic process eliminates the undesirable byproducts from acid hydrolysis

4.2.3.3.4. HVP is more expensive and has less flavour intensity

4.2.3.4. Nucleotides

4.2.3.4.1. Disodium-5'-inosinate(IMP) isolated from bonito tuna & disodium-5-guanylate(GMP) isolated from shiitake mushroom broth

4.2.3.4.2. MSG and nucleotides are used in synergistic combinations to enhance savoury flavour

4.2.3.4.3. 50:50 blend of MSG & IMP gives 8 times more flavour-enhancing effect compared to MSG alone

4.2.3.4.4. susceptible to degradation at moisture level above 60%

4.2.3.5. Maltols and ethyl maltol (sweetness potentiator)

4.2.3.5.1. enhance the flavour system of sweet goods

4.2.3.5.2. occur naturally in cereals, bread crust,etc and can improve flavour when added to other food

4.2.3.5.3. ability to suppress and eliminate undesirable acid bite and bitter note

4.2.3.5.4. minimize bitter aftertaste

4.2.3.5.5. help contribute brown/cooked flavour to microwave foods

5. Flavouring Category

5.1. Natural flavouring substances

5.1.1. Obtained from naturally occuring plant materials such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices

5.1.2. Can also obtained from natural sources by biotechnological, microbiological or physiccal processes such as extraction, distillation and concentration

5.1.3. e.g. orange, oils, vanilla extract from vanilla pods

5.1.4. Contain the flavouring constituents derived from a spice, fruit, vege, edible yeast, herb,etc...

5.1.5. Some flavours have one or a few dominant chemical components that carry the bulk of the taste- called character-impart compounds

5.1.5.1. e.g. Octyl acetate(ester)

5.2. Nature-identical flavouring substances

5.2.1. Obtained by synthesis or isolated through chemical processes from a natural aromatic material & chemically identical to a substance present in natural product

5.3. Artificial flavouring substances

5.3.1. Chemically synthesised

5.3.2. Not found to exist in nature

5.3.3. e.g. ethyl vanillin

6. Reasons for using flavouring

6.1. To impart the characteristics flavour of the flavouring

6.1.1. e.g. vanillin gives flavour of vanilla to ice-cream

6.2. To augment, complement or modify a flavour

6.2.1. e.g. vanillin modifies the flavour of chocolate or cocoa

6.3. To mask the original flavour

6.3.1. e.g. anise cover the bitter medicinals

6.4. To compensate for the flavours dissipated during processing

6.4.1. e.g. the loss of flavour due to heating while baking or the lack of the roast note in microwave cooking

6.5. The form of the natural material may not permit it to be used in the finished product.

6.5.1. e.g. ginger root cant be used as such to produce a beverage but must be extracted for use in a soft drink

7. Natural Flavouring Substances

7.1. Herbs:aromatic plants,such as basil, mint,oregano and thyme Spices:other highly aromatic plants: capsicum(pepper),cinnamon,etc consist of specific parts like seeds, fruits,roots and bark

7.1.1. naturally occuring essential oil & non-volatile constituents contribute to characteristic flavours

7.1.2. used in the form of essential oil or oleoresin

7.1.3. essential oil--prepared by steam distillation of the dried spices & contain the volatile flavour compound

7.1.4. Oleoresin--the solvent extract of the spices & contain the volatile essential oil & non-volatile resinous materials

7.1.5. Advantages of oleoresins over conventional spices

7.1.5.1. Clean product:free from physical impurities and extraneous matter

7.1.5.2. Sterile product:free from pathogen & microbiological contaminants

7.1.5.3. Standardized product: active ingredients, flavour and physical facilitate consistency in end-use

7.1.5.4. Flexibility to develop multiple spice blends

7.1.5.5. Uniform dispersion of spice extract provides instant flavour release

7.1.5.6. Concentrated form reduces storage space & bulk handling & transport requirement

7.1.5.7. The concentrated extract can be diluted to varying strengths

7.2. Vanilla: natural flavour extracted from cured 'vanilla bean' which contain vanillin, the major flavouring compound of vanilla

7.2.1. Blending vanilla extracts with at least 30% sugar produces vanilla sugar

7.2.2. Vanilla enhances the sweetness perception of foods

7.2.3. Vanilla softens or rounds out harsh, bitter notes in most chocolate applications such as ice-creams, cakes &syrups.

7.3. Reaction/process flavours

7.3.1. Definition: Flavourings that have been produced by subjecting selected raw materials to heat which result in heat-induced reactions(non- enzymatic browning reactions)&fat(or fatty acid)degradation.

7.3.2. 2 main reactions:Direct caramelizationof sugars Maillard reactions

7.3.3. e.g. caramel, cheese flavour

7.3.4. Applications

7.3.4.1. when cooked flavours are required- savoury products such as sauces,gravies, bouilon,snacks,soups,ready meals & meat products

7.4. Disadvantages of using natural flavourings

7.4.1. high cost

7.4.2. low intensity or impact

7.4.3. flavour variation

7.4.4. undesirable balance to flavour profile

7.5. Process for obtaining natural flavours

7.5.1. distillation

7.5.2. extraction

7.5.3. biotechnology(fermentation, enzyme modification)

7.5.4. concentration