Hemolytic Anemia

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Hemolytic Anemia by Mind Map: Hemolytic Anemia

1. Etiology

1.1. Risk Factors

1.1.1. Blood transfusion

1.1.2. Use of Hemolytic Anemia-causing medications

1.1.3. Family history of Hemolytic Anemia

1.2. Causative Factors

1.2.1. Acquired transfusion reactions disease in fetus or newborn warm or cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia bite from insects, snakes, and spiders bacterial or viral infection

1.2.2. Congenital sickle cell disease thalassemia hemoglobin defects hereditary spherocytosis hereditary elliptocytosis paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

1.3. Pathophysiologic factors

1.3.1. Non-immune Injury causes destruction of erythrocytes microangiopathic hemolytic anemia Infection from virus or bacteria drug-induced hemolysis

1.3.2. Immune Antibodies cause phagocytosis or complement-mediated destruction

2. Diagnostic Tests

2.1. bone marrow studies and blood tests

2.2. reticulocytosis

2.3. increased lactate dehydrogenase

2.4. increased unconjugated bilirubin

2.5. decreased haptoglobin levels

2.6. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT)

2.6.1. immune cause

2.6.2. nonimmune cause

3. Common Findings

3.1. acute anemia

3.2. jaundice

3.3. hematuria

3.4. dyspnea

3.5. fatigue

3.6. tachycardia

3.7. hypotension

3.8. splenomegaly with congenital disorder

3.9. skeletal abnormalities in children

4. Treatment

4.1. splenectomy

4.2. corticosteroids

4.3. Acquired HA requires stop underlying cause from disease, trauma, transfusion, or infection