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POLYMERS by Mind Map: POLYMERS

1. CHARACTERISTICS

1.1. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

1.1.1. MISCELLANEOUS MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

1.1.1.1. IMPACT STRENGTH

1.1.1.1.1. SEMICRYSTALLINE AND AMORPHOUS POLYMERS

1.1.1.2. FATIGUE

1.1.1.2.1. OCCURS AT STRESS LEVELS THAT ARE LOW RELATIVE TO THE YIELD STRENGTH

1.1.1.3. TEAR STRENGTH AND HARDNESS

1.1.1.3.1. SOFTER THAN METALS AND CERAMICS

1.1.1.3.2. ROCKWELL TESTS ARE MOSTLY USED

1.1.2. HOW THEY CHANGE

1.1.2.1. CRYSTALLIZATION

1.1.2.1.1. TRANSFORMATION

1.1.2.2. MELTING

1.1.2.2.1. TRANSFORMATION

1.1.2.3. GLASS TRANSITION

1.1.2.3.1. OCCURS IN AMORPHOUS REGIONS OF POLYMERS

1.1.2.3.2. UPON COOLING

1.1.2.4. TRANSITION TEMPERATURES

1.1.2.4.1. DETERMINED FROM SPECIFIC VOLUME VS TEMPERATURE CURVES

1.1.2.4.2. FACTORS OF INFLUENCE

2. APPLICATIONS

2.1. MISCELLANEOUS

2.1.1. COATINGS

2.1.1.1. PROTECT ITEM FROM ENVIRONMENT

2.1.1.2. IMPROVE APPEARANCE

2.1.2. ADHESIVES

2.1.2.1. BOND TOGETHER SURFACES OF TWO SOLID MATERIALS

2.1.2.2. TYPES

2.1.2.2.1. MECHANICAL

2.1.2.2.2. CHEMICAL

2.1.3. FOAMS

2.1.3.1. THERMOPLASTIC AND THERMOSETTING MATERIALS

2.2. ELASTOMERS

2.2.1. TABLE 15.4

2.3. PLASTICS

2.3.1. TABLE 15.3

3. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES

3.1. POLYMERS

3.1.1. POLYMERIZATION

3.1.1.1. ADDITION POLYMERIZATION

3.1.1.1.1. MONOMER UNITS ARE ATTACHED ONE AT A TIME IN CHAINLIKE FASHION

3.1.1.2. CONDENSATION POLYMERIZATION

3.1.1.2.1. STEP-WISE INTERMOLECULAR CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT MAY INVOLVE MORE THAN ONE MONOMER SPECIES

3.2. PLASTIC FORMING

3.2.1. COMPRESSION AND TRANSFER MOLDING

3.2.2. INJECTION MOLDING

3.2.3. EXTRUSION

3.2.4. BLOW MOLDING

3.2.5. CASTING

3.3. ELASTOMERS

3.3.1. SAME TECHNIQUES AS USED FOR PLASTICS

3.3.2. MOST RUBBER MATERIALS ARE VULCANIZED

3.3.3. SOME REINFORCED WITH CARBON BLACK

4. PROPERTIES

4.1. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR

4.1.1. STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS

4.1.1.1. GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS

4.1.1.1.1. BRITTLE

4.1.1.1.2. PLASTIC

4.1.1.1.3. HIGHLY ELASTIC

4.1.1.2. HIGH FLEXIBILITY, LOW DENSITY, RESISTANCE TO CORROSION

4.1.1.3. NOT AS STRONG OR STIFF AS METALS

4.1.2. FRACTURE OF POLYMERS

4.1.2.1. FRACTURE STRENGTHS LOW RELATIVE TO METALS AND CERAMICS

4.1.2.2. BOTH BRITTLE AND DUCTILE FRACTURE MODES ARE POSSIBLE

4.1.2.3. CRACK-FORMATION MAY BE PRECEDED BY CRAZING (IN SOME THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS)

4.1.2.4. DUCTILE-TO-BRITTLE TRANSITION WITH LOWERING OF TEMPERATURE (SOME THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS)

4.1.3. DEFORMATIONS

4.1.3.1. TYPES

4.1.3.1.1. VISCOELASTIC DEFORMATION

4.1.3.1.2. MACROSCOPIC DEFORMATION

4.1.3.2. OF CERTAIN MATERIALS

4.1.3.2.1. SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYMERS (SPHERULITIC STRUCTURE

4.1.3.2.2. ELASTOMERS

5. TYPES

5.1. CLASSIC

5.1.1. ELASTOMERS

5.1.1.1. TABLE 15.4

5.1.2. PLASTICS

5.1.2.1. TABLE 15.3

5.1.3. FIBERS

5.1.3.1. HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH

5.1.3.2. HIGH MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

5.1.3.3. ABRASION RESISTANCE

5.1.3.4. RELATIVELY HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT

5.1.3.5. RELATIVELY NONFLAMMABLE

5.1.3.6. AMENABLE TO DRYING

5.2. ADVANCED POLYMERIC MATERIALS

6. IMPORTANT TERMS

6.1. CRAZES

6.1.1. REGIONS OF LOCALIZED DEFORMATION AND MICROVOIDS

6.1.2. CAN LEAD TO AN INCREASE IN DUCTILITY AND TOUGHNESS OF MATERIAL

6.2. VULCANIZATION

6.2.1. CROSSLINKING PROCESS IN ELASTOMERS

6.3. POLYMERIZATION

6.3.1. PROCESS BY WHICH MONOMERS ARE LINKED TOGETHER TO GENERATE LONG CHAINS COMPOSED OF REPEAT UNITS