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TEST PREP by Mind Map: TEST PREP

1. WATER CYCLE

1.1. GROUND WATER

1.2. ROOT UPTAKE

1.3. EVAPORATION

1.4. PRECIPITATION

1.5. TRANSPIRATION

1.6. CONDENSATION

1.7. RUNOFF

1.8. SEEPAGE

1.9. BIOLOGICAL RECYCLING

2. LAWS OF CONVERSATION OF MATTER

2.1. matter can not be created or destroyed, it can be TRANSFERRED and rearranged into different forms.

2.2. matter can undergoes physical or chemical change, no atoms are created or destroyed.

2.3. The cycling of elements makes life possible on earth because it ensures the molecules that build living things are constantly available.

2.4. RESERVOIR- A place where matter, such as water or carbon is stored.

2.5. BIOSPHERE- All life forms on Earth; plants, animals, bacteria, soil.

2.6. HYDROSPHERE- all water on Earth- includes saltwater and fresh water.

2.7. LITHOSPHERE- solid outer section of the Earth.

2.8. ATMOSPHERE- a thin layer of gasses that surround the Earth.

2.9. RESIDENCE TIME- average amount of time that a carbon atom stays in a reservoir.

2.10. PROCESS- the method in which atoms move from one reservoir to another.

3. CARBON CYCLE

3.1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS- plants converts CO2 from the atmosphere or ocean water into sugar in the biosphere.

3.2. PHYSICAL PROCESS- when carbon moves between reservoirs without the help of living organisms.

3.3. biological recycling process- when living organisms are involved in moving the carbon between reservoirs.

3.4. CELLULAR RESPIRATION- process used by plants and animals to create energy. O2 is used to break down sugar CO2 is a byproduct.

3.5. LIMESTONE^^^ in the notes section

3.6. CONSUMPTION- animals obtain their carbon by eating plants and other animals.

3.7. DECOMPOSITION- the process where dead plant and animal material is broken down by bacteria and returned to the soil.

3.8. FOSSIL FUEL FORMATION- when dead matter is buried without oxygen and experience a large amount of pressure and heat for millions of years.

3.9. COAL FORMATION- coal forms from the remains of plants that lived in swamps millions of years ago.

3.10. OIL AND NATURAL GAS FORMATION- these form from the decay of tiny marine organisms that accumulated on the bottom of the ocean millions of years ago. These remains were buried in sediments heated until they became energy- rich carbon based molecules.

3.11. VOLCANIC ACTIVITY- volcanoes melt carbonate rocks such as: limestone and marble and release the carbon into the atmosphere as CO2 gas.

3.12. ABSORPTION- when carbon is pulled from the atmosphere into the ocean. this is the source of ocean acidifcation - excess carbon from the atmosphere is being pulled into the ocean.

3.13. COMBUSTION- humans burn fossil fuels to produce energy and run engines. this adds extra CO2 into the atmosphere.

3.14. DEFORESTATION- humans cut down forests, this slows down how fast carbon can be pulled out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis.

4. NITROGEN CYCLE

4.1. N2

4.2. NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA

4.3. NITROGEN FIXATION

4.4. DECAY/ WASTE

4.5. AMMONIFICATION

4.6. AMMONIA

4.7. NITRATE

4.8. NITRIFICATION

4.9. NITRATE

4.10. ASSIMILATION

4.11. DENITRIFICATION

5. CARBON CYCLE

6. EROSION

6.1. methods

6.2. small scale

6.3. Surface runoff

6.4. Coastal erosion

6.5. Large scale of erosion

7. WEATHERING OF ROCK

7.1. Physical Weathering

7.1.1. Frost Wedging

7.1.2. Plant Action

7.1.3. abrasion

7.1.4. wind abrasion

7.1.5. water abrasion

7.1.6. glacial abrasion

7.1.7. air abrasion

7.2. chemical weathering

7.2.1. carbonation

7.2.2. Oxidation

7.2.3. hydrolysis

7.3. factors effecting the weights of weathering

7.3.1. climate differences

7.3.1.1. cold and humid

7.3.1.2. hot and humid

7.3.2. root action

7.3.3. hot and humid climates

7.3.4. mountains and poles

7.3.5. mineral composition