Instructional Design and Technology

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Instructional Design and Technology by Mind Map: Instructional Design and Technology

1. Concepts

1.1. Systematic Processes or "Steps"

1.1.1. Design, development, implementation, evaluation, and management procedures to accomplish specific goals (current) Planning, production, selection, utilization, and management (1960s) Analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions (1970s) Five domains: designing, developing, utilizing, managing, and evaluating processes (1990s)

1.1.2. Methodologies Task Analysis (1940s) Subordinate skills are learned in a hierarchy Criterion-referenced testing (1960s) Measurement of how well an individual learner acquires intended behaviors Objective specification (1960s) Objectives written to specify desired behavior achieved to meet standards under specific conditions Formative evaluation (1960s) The evaluation of learning materials while in development

1.2. Performance Improvement Movement

1.2.1. Focus on job performance improvement, not just enhanced learning Instructional interventions: training courses or materials Noninstructional solutions

2. Theories

2.1. Learning Theories

2.1.1. Behaviorism Learning is a change in observable behavior Achieved through memorization and reinforcement

2.1.2. Cognitivism Learning is a mental process that adapts previous knowledge to new information Focused on thinking (problem solving), recognizing (prior knowledge), and recalling (memory)

2.1.3. Constructivism Learning is an active process that is determined by environment Constructed through real-world learning tasks that build upon prior knowledge and experiences

2.1.4. Multiple intelligences People do not learn effectively in the exact same way.

2.2. Processes of Communication

2.2.1. Focuses on methods of delivery from sender to receiver, not just on the message itself

3. Trends

3.1. Ethical Considerations

3.2. Human Performance Movement

3.2.1. On-the-job performance

3.2.2. Business results

3.2.3. Noninstructional solutions to performance problems

3.3. The Internet

3.3.1. Online learning courses Business K-12 Higher education Industry

3.4. Informal Learning in the Workplace

3.4.1. Facilitating skill acquisition through Social media Mobile devices Performance support tools

3.5. Simpler Design Models

3.5.1. Effective learning delivered through efficient solutions

4. Characteristics

4.1. Instructional Media Resources

4.1.1. Visual materials (1900s - 1920s) Films, pictures, slides

4.1.2. Audiovisual materials (1920s - 1940s) Radio, motion pictures with sound, sound recordings

4.1.3. Television (1950s - 1960s) Educational programming, CCTV

4.1.4. Computers and digital devices (1950s - present) Computer-assisted instruction through interactive video, CD-ROM, and Internet

4.2. Instructional Design

4.2.1. Media materials to present instruction (from 1900s)

4.2.2. Process : Finding solutions to learning problems or goals (popularized in 1950s-1970s) Systematic instructional design (steps) Improved performance through facilitated learning (current)

4.2.3. Incorporation of learning theories (from 1990s)

4.2.4. Based on research Development of instructional design methodologies