Summary of Science lesson

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Summary of Science lesson by Mind Map: Summary of Science lesson

1. Unit 1 Introduction to Matter

1.1. Describing Matter

1.1.1. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

1.1.2. Chemistry is the study of matter and how matter changes.

1.1.3. Substance is single kind of matter that is pure, meaning it always has a specific makeup, or composition.

1.1.4. Physical properties are characteristics of substances that can be observed without changing them into other substances.

1.1.5. Chemical properties are characteristics of substances that describe its ability to change into different substances.

1.2. Classifying Matter

1.2.1. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means.

1.2.2. An atom is basic particle in micro world, and it cannot be separated again.

1.2.3. Chemical bond is a force of attraction that

1.2.4. Molecule is a group of two or more atoms connect together.

1.2.5. A compound is a substance that made of two or more elements that are chemically combined in a set ratio.

1.2.6. A chemical formula shows the elements in the compound and the ratio of atoms.

1.2.7. Mixture is made of two or more substances that are together in the same place.

1.2.7.1. Heterogeneous mixture: we can see the different parts and it's easy to separate.

1.2.7.2. homogeneous mixture: we cannot see the different part and it's difficult to separate.

1.2.8. Separating mixtures

1.2.8.1. distillation

1.2.8.2. evaporation

1.2.8.3. filtration

1.2.8.4. magnetic attraction

1.2.9. relationship

1.2.9.1. particle

1.2.9.1.1. atom

1.2.9.1.2. molecule

1.2.9.2. matter

1.2.9.2.1. substance

1.2.9.2.2. mixture(many substances mix together)

1.2.10. An atom is basic particle in micro world, and it cannot be separated.

1.2.11. An atom is basic particle in micro world, and it cannot be separated.

1.3. Measuring Matter

1.3.1. Weight is a measure of the force of gravity on a person, your weight on moon is lighter than yours on the earth.

1.3.2. Mass does not change with location and the force of gravity.

1.3.3. Volume means the amount of space that matter occupies.

1.3.4. Density is a measure of the mass of a material in a given volume. Formula: Density=mass/volume

1.3.5. Object with densities greater than that of water will sink,with lesser densities will float.

1.4. Changes in Matter

1.4.1. physical change does not produce any new substance.

1.4.2. Oppositely, chemical change produces new substance.

1.4.3. The fact that matter is not created or destroyed in any chemical or physical change is called the law of conservation mass.

1.4.4. Temperature is a measure that express how hot or cold something is.

1.4.5. Thermal energy is the total energy of the motion of all of the particles in an object.

1.4.6. Endothermic change absorbs energy.

1.4.7. Exothermic change releases energy.

2. Unit 2 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

2.1. States of Matter

2.1.1. Solid has a definite shape and a definite volume.

2.1.1.1. Crystalline solids are made up of crystals

2.1.1.2. The particles of amorphous solids are not arranged in a regular pattern.

2.1.1.2.1. Amorphous solid does not melt at a distinct temperature, like glass.

2.1.2. Liquid has a definite volume but has no shape.

2.1.2.1. liquid=fluid

2.1.2.2. surface tension: an inward force, or pull, among the molecules in a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together.

2.1.2.3. viscosity: resistance to flowing

2.1.3. Gas has no specific shape and volume.

2.2. Changes of States

2.2.1. Melting

2.2.2. Freezing

2.2.3. Evaporation

2.2.4. Boiling

2.2.5. Condensation

2.2.6. sublimation

2.3. Gas Behavior

2.3.1. When the temperature of a gas at constant volume is increased, the pressure of the gas increases. When the temperature is decreased, the pressure of the gas decreases.

2.3.1.1. =T increases, then P increases.

2.3.2. Charles's Law

2.3.2.1. T increases, then V increases

2.3.2.2. The functional graph: directly proportional

2.3.3. Boyle's Law

2.3.3.1. P increases, then V decreases

2.3.3.2. The functional graph: inversely proportional