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The Periodic Table by Mind Map: The Periodic Table

1. Group I - Alkali Metals

1.1. Physical properties

1.1.1. Low b.p./m.p.

1.1.1.1. Explanation

1.1.1.1.1. Weak electrostatic forces of attraction between cations and sea of delocalised electrons that require little energy to overcome

1.1.2. Low density

1.1.2.1. Explanation

1.1.2.1.1. Low Mr = Less dense = Lighter = Rises

1.1.3. Good conductor of electricity

1.1.3.1. Explanation

1.1.3.1.1. Sea of delocalised electrons that can act as charge carriers and conduct electricity

1.1.4. Brittle and Soft

1.1.5. Shiny in appearance

1.2. Chemical properties

1.2.1. Reacts with H2O to form alkali in an explosive reaction

1.2.1.1. Example

1.2.1.1.1. 2Na (aq) + 2H2O (aq) -> 2NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)

1.2.2. Reacts with O2 to form oxide of alkali metal

1.2.2.1. Example

1.2.2.1.1. 4Na (aq) + O2 (g) -> 2Na2O (aq)

1.2.3. Reacts with CO2 to produce soluble metal carbonate

1.2.3.1. Example

1.2.3.1.1. Na (aq) + CO2 (g) -> NaCO2 (aq)

2. Group II Metals

2.1. Physical Properties

2.1.1. Higher m.p./b.p.

2.1.1.1. Explanation

2.1.1.1.1. Higher Mr which means stronger electrostatic forces of attraction between cations and sea of delocalised electrons that require a lot of energy to overcome

2.1.2. Good conductor of electricity

2.1.2.1. Explanation

2.1.2.1.1. Sea of delocalised electrons that can act as charge carriers and conduct electricity

2.1.3. Malleable and Ductile

2.2. Chemical properties

2.2.1. Neutralisation Reactions

2.2.1.1. Examples

2.2.1.1.1. Acid + Base -> Salt + H2

2.2.1.1.2. Metal + O2 -> Metal Oxide

2.2.1.1.3. Metal + CO2 -> Metal Carbonate

3. Group III Metals

3.1. Physical Properties

3.1.1. Malleable and Ductile

3.1.2. Good Conductor of electricity

3.1.2.1. Sea of delocalised electrons that can act as charge carriers and conduct electricity

3.1.3. Higher b.p./m.p. than alkali metals

3.1.3.1. Explanation

3.1.3.1.1. Higher Mr which means stronger electrostatic forces of attraction between cations and sea of delocalised electrons that require a lot of energy to overcome

3.1.4. Sonorous

3.2. Chemical Properties

3.2.1. Neutralisation Reactions

3.2.1.1. Examples

3.2.1.1.1. Acid + Metal -> Salt + H2

3.2.1.1.2. Metal + O2 -> Oxide of Metal

3.2.1.1.3. Metal + CO2 -> Metal Carbonate

4. Characteristics

4.1. Across the period

4.1.1. Same no. of inner filled electron shells

4.1.2. Nature of oxides differ

4.1.2.1. Example

4.1.2.1.1. Amphoteric Oxide (Al2O3)

4.1.2.1.2. Basic Oxide (MgO)

4.1.2.1.3. Neutral Oxide (H2O)

4.1.2.1.4. Acidic Oxide (CO2)

4.2. Down the group

4.2.1. Metals

4.2.1.1. Reactivity increases down the group

4.2.1.1.1. Increased no. of inner filled electron shells causes shielding effect to increase, and this causes electrostatic forces of attraction between valence electrons and neturons to increase as electrostatic forces of attraction have to penetrate through more shells

4.2.1.1.2. Explanation ^

4.2.2. Non-metals (Group VII)

4.2.2.1. Reactivity decreases down the group

4.2.2.1.1. Explanation

4.2.3. Same No. of valence electrons

4.3. Arranged based on

4.3.1. Increasing proton no. of element

4.3.2. Chemical and Physical properties of elements

4.4. Total no. of groups: 5

4.4.1. The group at the end of every period is the group for noble gases

4.5. Staircase line differentiates metals, metalloids and non-metals

5. Transitional Metals (Halogens)

5.1. Physical Properties

5.1.1. Good conductor of electricity

5.1.1.1. Explanation

5.1.1.1.1. Sea of delocalised electrons that can act as charge carriers and conduct electricity

5.1.2. High b.p./m.p.

5.1.2.1. Explanation

5.1.2.1.1. Strong electrostatic forces of attraction between cations and sea of delocalised electrons that require a lot of energy to overcome

5.1.3. Malleable and Ductile

5.1.4. Sonorous

5.1.5. Some are magnetic (Eg. Iron)

5.2. Chemical Properties

5.2.1. Displacement Reaction

5.2.1.1. More reactive element displaces less reactive element

5.2.1.1.1. Eg. Na (s) + LiCl (aq) -> NaCl (aq) + Li (g)

5.2.1.1.2. Eg. F2 (g) + 2NaCl (aq) -> 2NaF (aq) + Cl2 (g)

5.2.2. Usually form colored compounds

5.2.2.1. Examples

5.2.2.1.1. Copper (II) ions are usually blue in color thus it forms blue colored compounds such as Copper (II) oxide. CuO

5.2.3. Form variable oxidation states

5.2.3.1. Examples

5.2.3.1.1. Cu+ / Cu2+

5.2.3.1.2. Fe2+ / Fe3+

6. Non-Metals

6.1. Noble Gases

6.1.1. Physical Properties

6.1.1.1. Poor conductor of electricity

6.1.1.1.1. Lack of cations/anions/electrons that can delocalise with the area and act as charge carriers

6.1.1.2. Low m.p./b.p.

6.1.1.2.1. Weak intermolecular forces of attraction between molecules that require little energy to overcome as they are all monatomic gases at room temperature

6.1.1.3. No color, odor, or flavor under ordinary conditions

6.1.1.3.1. However

6.1.1.4. Non-flammable

6.1.2. Chemical Properties

6.1.2.1. Generally non-reactive

6.1.2.1.1. Explanation

6.1.2.2. However

6.1.2.2.1. They have high ionization energies

6.2. Other Non-Metals

6.2.1. Physical Properties

6.2.1.1. Poor conductor of electricity

6.2.1.1.1. Explanation

6.2.1.2. Low m.p./b.p.

6.2.1.2.1. Explanation

6.2.1.3. Brittle

6.2.2. Chemical Properties

6.2.2.1. Displacement Reaction

6.2.2.1.1. More reactive element displaces less reactive element

6.2.3. States at r.t.p.

6.2.3.1. Cl2 -> Gaseous (Yellow color)

6.2.3.1.1. Volatile gas

6.2.3.2. F2 -> Gaseous (Yellow color)

6.2.3.2.1. Volatile gas

6.2.3.3. Br2 -> Liquid (Reddish brown color)

6.2.3.4. I2 -> Solid (Brown color)

6.2.3.5. At2 -> Solid (Black color)

7. Metalloids

7.1. Physical Properties

7.1.1. Usually Brittle

7.1.2. Metallic Appearance

7.1.3. Fair conductor of electricity

7.1.4. Intermediate in nature

7.1.5. Can be sonorous/not sonorous

7.2. Chemical Properties

7.2.1. Mostly non-metal chemical reactions

7.2.2. Eg. Si + O2 = SiO2

7.3. Examples

7.3.1. Silicon (Si)

7.3.1.1. Physical Properties (Examples)

7.3.1.1.1. Luster (Like a metal)

7.3.1.1.2. Brittle (Like a non-metal)

7.3.1.1.3. Electrical conductivity is fair - between that of metal and non-metal

7.3.2. Germanium (Ge)

7.3.3. Boron (B)

7.3.3.1. Physical Properties (Examples)

7.3.3.1.1. Versatile (Like a metal)

7.3.3.2. Chemical Properties (Examples)

7.3.3.2.1. Can be incorporated into a number of compounds (Has a variety of uses)

7.4. Also known as semimetals

8. Special Metal

8.1. Zinc

8.1.1. Zinc is NOT a transitional metal

8.1.1.1. Explanation

8.1.1.1.1. It forms white colored compounds unlike the colored compounds that transitional metals usually form

9. Terms

9.1. Malleable

9.1.1. Able to form shapes without losing toughness

9.2. Ductile

9.2.1. Able to be drawn into thin wires without losing toughness

9.3. Malleable =/= Ductile

9.4. Stable

9.4.1. Achieved stable noble gas electronic configuration

9.4.1.1. Examples

9.4.1.1.1. Helium(He): 2

9.4.1.1.2. Neon(Ne): 2,8

9.5. Neutral

9.5.1. No. of protons = No. of electrons

9.5.2. All elements except for ions are neutral

9.6. Neutral =/= Stable

10. Metal Alloys

10.1. Physical Properties

10.1.1. Strong and hard

10.1.1.1. Explanation

10.1.1.1.1. The larger metallic particles do not move as easily as the smaller particles, thereby making metal alloys hard and strong

10.1.2. Non-malleable

10.1.2.1. Explanation

10.1.2.1.1. Alloys disrupts the regular arrangement present in pure metallic compounds.