Microbial Disease

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Microbial Disease by Mind Map: Microbial Disease

1. Pattern of Diseases

1.1. Predisposing Factors

1.1.1. Gender

1.1.2. Genetic backgriund

1.1.3. Climate and weather

1.2. Development of Disease

1.2.1. Incubation period

1.2.2. Prodromal period

1.2.3. Period of illness

1.2.4. Period of decline

1.2.5. Period of convalescence

2. Spreads of Infection

2.1. Reservoirs

2.1.1. Human

2.1.1.1. Carriers

2.1.1.2. Latent disease

2.1.2. Animal

2.1.2.1. Zoonoses

2.1.3. Non-living

2.1.3.1. Soil

2.1.3.2. Water

2.2. Transmission of Disease

2.2.1. Contact transmission

2.2.1.1. Direct contact

2.2.1.2. Indirect contact

2.2.1.3. Droplet transmission

2.2.2. Vehicle

2.2.2.1. Airborne

2.2.2.2. Waterborne

2.2.2.3. Food borne

2.2.3. Vectors

2.2.3.1. Mechanical

2.2.3.2. Biological

3. Classifying Infectious Diseases

3.1. Diagnosis

3.1.1. Symptoms

3.1.2. Signs

3.1.3. Syndrome

3.2. Behaviour

3.2.1. Communicable

3.2.2. Non-Communicable

3.3. Occurrence of a disease

3.3.1. Reported by

3.3.1.1. Incidence

3.3.1.2. Prevelance

3.3.2. Frequency of occurrence

3.3.2.1. Sporadic

3.3.2.2. Endemic

3.3.2.3. Epidemic

3.3.2.4. Pandemic

3.4. Severity or Duration of a disease

3.4.1. Acute

3.4.2. Chronic

3.5. Extend of Host Involvement

3.5.1. Local

3.5.2. Systemic

3.5.3. Primary infection

3.5.4. Secondary infection

3.5.5. Subclinical Infection

4. Koch’s Postulate - Criteria for establishing that specific microbes cause specific diseases

4.1. Requirements: 1. The same pathogen must be present in every case of he disease. 2. The pathogen must be isolated from the diseases host and grown in pure culture. 3. The same disease must be produced when pure culture is inoculated into a healthy,susceptible laboratory animal. 4. Pathogens must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism

4.2. Exceptions: 1. Some organisms cannot be grown in laboratory medium 2. Infected individuals do not always have clear-cut symptoms. 3.Some diseases are polymicrobial. 4. Suitable hosts at not always available for testing

5. Factors Determine Distribution of Normal Microbiota

5.1. Nutrients

5.2. Physical

5.3. Chemical

5.4. Defended of the host

5.5. Mechanical

6. Human Microbiome

6.1. Normal Microbiota

6.1.1. Commensalism

6.1.2. Mutualism

6.1.3. Parasitism

6.2. Transient Microbiota

6.3. Opportunistic