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Reported speech by Mind Map: Reported speech

1. Types

1.1. Statements

1.1.1. S+ said/told sb + that + clause

1.1.2. Ex:"I am going to visit Canada" she said. -She said that she was going to Canada.

1.2. Reported questions

1.2.1. Yes-No question S+ asked(sb) + if/whether + clause Ex: "Do you love me?", Jame said. - Jame asked me if/whether I love him.

1.2.2. Wh- question S + asked/wondered + wh + clause Ex: "Where do you live, Huyen?"asked he - He asked Huyen where she lived.

1.3. Commands and requests

1.3.1. S + asked/told/ordered/wanted/warned + sb(not) to V

1.3.2. Ex : "Close the door , please " , the teacher said . -> The teacher asked us to close the door .

2. Definition

2.1. Reported speech is how we represent the speech of other people or what we ourselves say.

2.1.1. Barbara said she hadn’t realised it was midnight.

3. Watchout!

3.1. Tenses

3.1.1. Present simple ~ past simple Ex: "She always wears a coat." he said. -He said (that) she always wore a coat.

3.1.2. Past simple ~ past perfect Ex: "My friend gave me a bar of chocolate" he said. -He said (that) his friend had given him a bar of chocolate.

3.1.3. Present perfect ~ past perfect Ex: "She has written three letters for her friend."he said -He said (that) she had written three letters for her friend.

3.1.4. Present continuous~past continuous Ex: "I’m looking for my keys" -She said (that) she was looking for her keys

3.1.5. Past perfect "I had just turned out the light" she said. -He explained that he had just turned out the light

3.1.6. “Will~would” “can~could” “may~might” must~had to” Ex: "I can speak English."she said -She said (that) she could speak English.

3.2. change phrase of time and place

3.2.1. this -> that “I shall be very busy this week.” -> She said she would be very busy that week.

3.2.2. here -> there “Put the box here.”->He told us to put the box there.

3.2.3. now -> then Ex : “The children are playing outside now." -> He said that the children were playing outside then.

3.2.4. today -> that day “I've got a piano lesson today.”-> She said that she had got a piano lesson that day.

3.2.5. tonight -> that night “I'm going for a beer with Karl tonight.”-> He said that he was going for a beer with Karl that night.

3.2.6. yesterday -> the day before “Our English teacher quizzed us yesterday.”->They said their English teacher had quizzed them the day before.

3.2.7. tomorrow -> the following day “I will leave for New York tomorrow”->She said that she would leave New York for the next day.

3.2.8. ago -> before “The letter came a few days ago.”-> He said the letter had come a few days before.

3.2.9. last week -> the week before / the previous week “We had an awful earthquake last week.” -> They told us they had had an awful earthquake the previous week.

4. No change in tenses in reported speech

4.1. The introductory verb is in the Present, Present Perfect or Future

4.1.1. He says, "I will come." -He says that he will come.

4.2. Fact or general truth

4.2.1. Ex:Copernicus: “The planets revolve around the sun." -Copernicus stated that the planets revolve around the sun.

4.3. The second or the third conditional

4.3.1. Ex:He said, “If 1 won the lottery, | would travel around the world.” -He said that he would travel around the world if he won the lottery.

4.4. “Had better’, ''Could”, ''Would”, “Used to”, ''Should”,''Might”, '' We ought to” remain unchanged.

4.4.1. Ex: He said, “Ann might ring today.” -He said that Ann might ring that day.

5. Special structures

5.1. S +promised+sb+to + V / not to V

5.1.1. Ex: " I will never do this again " He said to her --> he promised her not to do that again

5.2. S+ threatened (sb)+to V/ not to V

5.2.1. Ex: He said " I will kill you if you dont do that "- -> He threatened to kill me if I didnt do that

5.3. S+ congratulated+ sb+ on+ Ving

5.3.1. Ẽx: “I’m happy to know that you win the game. Congratulations!”, Jim said to Mary.- > Jim congratulated Mary on winning the game

5.4. S+ accused+ sb+ of(not)+ Ving

5.4.1. Ex: " You stole my bike ". He said --> He accused me of stealing / having stolen his bike

5.5. S+ insisted+ on Ving

5.5.1. Ex: Tom said “ Let me pay for myself. => Tom insisted on paying.

5.6. S+ apologized+ to+ sb+ for(not)+ Ving

5.6.1. Ex: Ann said to her boss: “I’m sorry I’m late” => Ann apologized to her boss for being late.