Biology 20 more like cringe 20

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Biology 20 more like cringe 20 by Mind Map: Biology 20 more like cringe 20

1. Population and Individual

2. Ecology And Population Change

2.1. Natural Selection

2.2. Genotype vs Phenotype

2.3. Adaptation and Variation

2.4. Speciation/Species

2.5. Heritable Mutations

3. Energy and Matter Exchange

3.1. Ecology and Ecosystems

3.1.1. Biosphere

3.2. Autotroph/Producers (Photosynthesis and Chemeosythesis)

3.3. Consumer/Heterotroph (Cellular Respiration)

3.4. Primary Consumers - Herbivores

3.5. Secondary Consumers - Carnivores or Omnivores

3.6. Tertiary Consumers - Carnivores

3.7. Decomposers or detrivores

4. Human Systems

4.1. Macromolecules

4.1.1. Proteins

4.1.1.1. Enzymatic Catalyst

4.1.1.2. Sensory Perception and Hormonal Regulation

4.1.1.3. Denaturation and Deamination

4.1.2. Carbohydrates

4.1.2.1. Polymers / Monomers

4.1.2.2. Dehydration Synthesis / Hydrolysis

4.1.2.3. Monosaccarides

4.1.2.4. Disaccarides

4.1.2.5. Polysaccarides

4.1.3. Lipids

4.1.3.1. Triglycerides

4.1.3.2. Phospolipids

4.1.3.3. Steroids

4.1.4. Nucleic Acids

4.1.5. DNA / RNA

4.2. Enzymes

4.2.1. Inhibitors

4.2.1.1. Non Competitive

4.2.1.2. Competitive

5. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

5.1. Cell Membrane

5.1.1. Passive Transport - Semi Permeable, Diffusion and Osmosis

5.2. Facilitated Diffusion, Carrier Proteins and Channel proteins

5.3. Endocytosis and Exocytosis

5.4. ATP

5.5. Metabolism

5.5.1. Anabolic and Catabolic Pathways

5.6. Active Transport - Uses Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

6. Ecology

6.1. Anton van Leeuwenhoek - Kingdoms: Animals, Plants and Protists

6.2. Aristotle - Kingdoms:Plants and Animals

6.3. Taxonomy

6.4. Herbert Copeland

6.5. Edouard Chatton - Divided Life:Eukarya and Prokarya

6.6. Carl Woese - Divided Life: Eukarya,Bacteria and Archaea

6.7. Binomial Nomenclature

6.8. Environment - Biotic and Abiotic

6.9. Community

6.10. Biomes

6.11. Carolus Linnaeus - Phylum,Class,Order,Family,Genus and Species

7. Ecology PT2

7.1. Habitat

7.2. Ecological Niche

7.3. Profundal Zone

7.4. Benthic Zone

7.5. Limnetic Zone

7.6. Littoral Zone

7.7. Limiting Factors

7.8. Intraspecies Competition

7.9. Interspecies Competition

8. Population Change PT2

8.1. Sexual Reproduction

8.2. Creationism vs Transmutationism

8.3. Georges-Lewis Leclarc, Comte de Buffon - Different Regions had different plants and animals

8.4. George Cuvier - Paleontology

8.5. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

8.6. Sir Charles Lyell - Father of modern geology

8.7. Charles Darwin - Theory of natural selection

8.8. Alfred Wallace

9. Natural Selection

9.1. Overproduction - more offspring than given resources

9.2. Struggles for existence/competition - Excess number of offspring, Competition leads to a limited amount of resources

9.3. Natural Selection - Selective Pressure and Selective advantage

9.4. Variation - Differences exist between individuals within the population

9.5. Survival of the fittest/natural selection - Individuals with different traits allow them to be better competitors

9.6. Origin of new species / Speciation

10. Evidence of Evolution

10.1. Fossil Record

10.2. Embryology

10.3. Comparative anatomy

10.4. Vestigial Organs

10.5. Biogeography

10.5.1. Molecular Genetics

11. Cycling of Energy

11.1. Trophic Levels

11.2. Law of thermodynamics

11.3. Rule of Ten

11.4. Food Chain / Food web

11.5. Trophic Cascade

11.6. Ecological Pyramid

11.6.1. Pyramid of numbers

11.6.2. Pyramid of Biomass

11.6.3. Pyramid of energy

12. Cycles of Matter

12.1. Biogeochemical Cycles

12.2. Water/Hydrologic Cycle

12.3. Carbon and Oxygen Cycle

12.4. Nitrogen Cycle

12.5. Sulfur Cycle

12.6. Phosphorus Cycle

13. Digestive System

13.1. Ingestion

13.2. Digestion

13.3. Absorption

13.4. Egestion

13.5. Oral cavity, Esophagus, Stomach,Small and large intestine,Anus

13.6. Cardiac and Pyloric Sphincter

13.7. Ulcers

13.8. Accessory Organs

13.8.1. Bile,Gall Bladder,Pancreas,Duodenum,Liver,Acid Chyme,Intestinal Juice,

14. Respiratory System

14.1. Oxygen Brought in. Carbon Dioxide Removed

14.2. Breathing,External and Internal Respiration, Cellular Respiration

14.3. Upper Respiratory Tract

14.3.1. Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Glottis, Epiglottis, Larynx, Trachea

14.4. Lower Respiratory Tract

14.4.1. Pleural Membrane,Bronchi,Bronchioles,Alveolus,

14.5. Intercostal/ Rib Muscles, Diaphragm,

14.6. External Respiration

14.7. Hemoglobin

14.8. Internal Respiration

14.9. Regulation of Breathing

15. Circulatory System

15.1. Transport gases, Nutrients, Waste and Hormones

15.2. Regulate internal temperature

15.3. Protects against invading pathogens

15.4. Blood Vessels

15.4.1. Arteries,Veins and Capillaries

15.5. Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction

15.6. Cardiac Muscles

15.7. Atria,Ventricles, Septums, Heart Valves, Atrioventricular Valves - Triscupid and biscupid valves, Semi Luner Valves - Pulmonary and Aortic Valves.

15.8. Blood Flow, Superior and Inferior Vena Cava, Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Left and Right Pulmonary Arteries, Lungs, Heart, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Aorta.

15.9. Coronary Pathway and Arteries

16. Blood Cells

16.1. Plasma, Buffy Coat leukocytes and platelets and erythrocytes

16.2. Red blood cells

16.2.1. Hemoglobin

16.3. White Blood Cells

16.3.1. Granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes

17. Immune System

17.1. Antigen and Antibody

17.2. Three Lines of defence

17.3. Physical Defences

17.4. Non-Specific Defences

17.5. Specific Defences

17.5.1. T-Cells and B-Cells

18. Excretory System

18.1. Regulate Volume and Composition of Body Fluids

18.2. Maintaining electrolytes, PH and water balance

18.3. Removes carbon dioxide (from cellular respiration)

18.4. Liver removes lactic acids (Anaerobic Cell Resp)

18.5. Kidney's remove ammonia and uric acid

18.6. Ureters,Urinary Bladder,Urinary Sphinter, Urethra

18.7. Kidney

18.7.1. Renal Cortex, Renal medulla, renal pelvis, Renal Artery, Renal Vein, Nephrons,Nephron Filter, Nephron Tubule, Nephron Duct

18.8. Urine Formation - Proximal Tubule, Descending Loop of Henle, Ascending Loop of Henle, Distal Tubule, Collecting Duct

18.9. Osmoreceptors

19. Muscular System

19.1. Muscle Functions

19.1.1. Movement

19.1.2. Locomotion

19.1.3. Food Digestion

19.1.4. Urinating

19.1.5. Posture Maintainace

19.1.6. Joint Stability and Heat Generation

19.2. Cardiac Muscle Tissue

19.2.1. Pacemaker

19.2.2. Striated

19.2.3. Found in heart

19.2.4. Involuntary

19.3. Skeletal Muscle Tissue

19.3.1. Long Thin Fibers

19.3.2. Striated

19.3.3. Voluntary

19.3.4. Contract Rapidly

19.3.5. Tire Easily

19.4. Smooth Muscle Tissue

19.4.1. Lacks Striations

19.4.2. Involuntary

19.4.3. Contractions are slow and sustained

20. Photosynthesis

20.1. "Light" "Put Together"

20.2. 6CO2+6H20+Solar Energy -> C6H12O6+6O2 (Relates to Ecosystems and Cycles of matter)

20.3. Carbon Dioxide and water in +Sunlight forms carbohydrates and releases oxygen

20.4. Light Dependent and Light Independent Reactions "Calvin Cycle"

20.5. NADPH

20.6. Redox Reactions - Oxidation Reduction

20.7. H20 and O2

20.8. Electron Transport Chain

20.9. Calvin Cycle

20.9.1. Carbon Dioxide Fixation

20.9.2. Rubisco

20.9.3. PGA

20.9.4. PGAL

20.9.5. RuBP

20.9.6. Glucose (C6H12O6)

20.10. ADP and NADH

20.11. Chlorophyll A and B - Found in Chloroplast

20.11.1. Thylakoid Membrane, Outer/inner membrane, Granum,Lamella,Lumen

21. Cellular Respiration

21.1. Breaks down carbohydrates and Energy Rich products to generate ATP

21.2. C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy

21.3. Mitochondria

21.3.1. Inner and Outer Membrane, Cristae and Matrix

21.4. Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration and Fermentation

21.5. Glycolosis

21.6. Pyruvate Oxidation

21.7. Krebs Cycle

21.7.1. Acetyl CoA, NAD+ -> NADH, ADP -> ATP, FAD -> FADH2, 2x

21.8. Ethanol and Lactate Fermantation