Learning Design and Technology by Ng Yan Kit (2008136532)

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Learning Design and Technology by Ng Yan Kit (2008136532) by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology by Ng Yan Kit (2008136532)

1. Topic 8: Designing Learning Technology for Mobile Learning

1.1. Categories

1.1.1. Administrative Calenders Contact Grading Sample Application Due Yesterday Student Organiser Palm Gradebook Assistant Moodle ( on iPhone) TaskAnt (iPhone app) Pedagogical underpinning Little

1.1.2. Referential Dictionary Word Processor & Office Style Tools E-Books Sample Applications Documents-to-Go Apple ibook Adobe Reader Word Lens (iPhone app) Wikipedia (iPhone app) iTunes U Apple page ( iOS app) Pedagogical underpinning Instructional

1.1.3. Interactive Drill and Test Animation Graphing Wireless Response Technology Sample Application Sketchy KidPad Geometer's Sketchpad Study Cards Classroom Performance System Draw something (iPhone app) Pedagogical underpinning Constructionist

1.1.4. Microworld Models of Real World Domains Sample Application uDrumSteps Carom Billiards Chess game Pedagogical underpinning Constructionist

1.1.5. Data collection Note Taking Evernotes Sensor Reading Data Logging Scientific Application Multimedia Application Clubbhouse Digital Narrative RAMSES Reflective Application RAMBLE Pedagogical underpinning Little Pedagogy Contextual Reflective Constructivist

1.1.6. Location aware Museum Guides Augmented Environment Stelleriaum Sample Application The Exploratorium GuideBook FieldNote Ambient Wood Pedagogical underpinning Little Pedagogy Behaviourist Constructivist Contextual

1.1.7. Collaborative Co-Present Games Collaborative Environment Sample Application Txt IT Sort IT Moodle Mapping Challenge Syllabus Cooties Savannth Pedagogical underpinning Collaborative Contextual Constructivist Constructionist

1.2. Learning Theory/Padgogical underpinning

1.2.1. Contextual Learning

1.2.2. Constructivist Learning

1.2.3. Collaborative Learning

1.2.4. Behaviourist

1.2.5. Instructional

1.2.6. Constructionist

1.2.7. identified most appropriate of these Collaboration Contextualization Constructionism Constructivism

1.3. Platform

1.3.1. PDA Microsoft CE Microsoft windows phone 7 Palm OS Symbian OS iOS Android

1.4. Learning Object

1.4.1. ebook

1.4.2. Apps

1.4.3. Podcasts

1.5. Unique attribute

1.5.1. tend to replicate traditional application

1.5.2. more creative

1.5.3. on spot reflection

1.5.4. Appropriate and innovative use Data colleciton Location aware Collaborative

1.6. Design Framework

1.6.1. Driven by pedagogical consideration

1.6.2. Misconception Driven by financial Driven by logistical Driven by technical reason

1.6.3. Categorising

2. Group project

2.1. ADDIE Model

2.1.1. Analysis Instructional goal and objectve

2.1.2. Design Learning objective Assessment instrument Content Subject matter analysis Lesson planning Media selection

2.1.3. Development Storyboard Prototyping

2.1.4. Implementation

2.1.5. Evalution Formative assessment Summative assessment

2.2. CISCO reusable learning object

3. Topic 7: Web 2.0-based Learning Technolgoies

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. Spectrum of emerging novel internet application

3.1.2. Paradigm shift understanding expectation

3.1.3. Advance approach appliation of internet

3.1.4. Retrieve methodology access recommendation from crowd "Wisdom of crowd"

3.1.5. Repository Floxonomy tag Wiki-like system syndication feed tracking mechanism podcasting

3.1.6. Criticism

3.1.7. Mobile and handheld technology

3.2. Example

3.2.1. Read-Write web Web-based publication Blog Wiki Create content from user

3.2.2. Subscribing to informatioin RSS Feed news radio program Reader iTunes

3.2.3. Social Space Myspace Facebook Resource sharing Flickr Napster Youtube Reference system del.icio.us

3.2.4. Platform Google Doc Google Sites Microsoft sharepoint

3.2.5. Opensource Moodle Wikipedia honest in their intention of use

3.2.6. Mashup

3.3. Education and Web 2.0

3.3.1. E-learning Podcasting class learning management system Moodle Blog social space

3.3.2. New form of assessment Digital portfolios

3.3.3. internet social learning space

3.3.4. new model of leanring Multi media expression

3.3.5. new resources sharing model

3.3.6. new learning management system

4. reflection

4.1. Student-centered learning

4.1.1. self directed

4.1.2. opportunity of reflection

4.1.3. difficult to assess

4.2. Mobile learning

4.2.1. at any time any where on spot learning

4.3. Learning theory

4.3.1. Contructivism reflection learner find out the learning outcome learner get lost in internet

4.3.2. behaviourism

4.3.3. cognitivism

4.3.4. no the best one Contextual limitation

4.4. multimedia

4.4.1. focus on learning

4.4.2. principle of cognitive theory channel of human reception

4.5. technology

4.5.1. pedagogical driven instead of technology based

4.5.2. should not be limited by technical view

4.6. Web 2.0

4.6.1. collaborative learning

4.6.2. social cultural context sharing of knowledge

4.6.3. new model of learning sharing learning

4.7. Design model

4.7.1. Addie model

4.7.2. Taxonomoy Bloom's

5. Topic 1: Design of Learning/Instructional Products

5.1. History

5.1.1. Tool/Medium visualization Audiovisual movement Audio visual instruction educational technology instructional technology instruction media computer

5.1.2. Paradigm Shift instructional to non-instruction

5.1.3. Instructional practice

5.1.4. traditional VS contemporary tradition mediam learning theory comtemporary medium learning theory

5.2. Systematic instruction

5.3. Instructional product

5.4. Instructional design

5.4.1. instructional designer

5.5. Project management

6. Topic 2: Instructional Design Models

6.1. Learning theory

6.1.1. Definition explanation for observation made explains and predicts behaviour never establish beyond all doubt maybe modifed seldom disproved completely

6.1.2. example Behavorism Based on observable change in behavior (Schuman, 1996) Focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it become automatic (Schuman, 1996) Learning objective Taxonomic Analysis of Learning Behavior Systems Approach to Instruction break down task into small step and find the shaping learner's behaviour Weakness Strength Cognitivism Based on the premise construct our own perspective of the world (Schuman, 1996) Through individual experience and schema (Schuman, 1996) Prepare learners to problem solved in ambiguous situation (Schuman, 1996) Shift from behavioristic practices to internal mental processes of the mind Break down task into smaller step to develop instruction from simple to complex Evidence Computer-based instruction Weakness strength Constructivism Based on the thought process behind the behavior (Schuman, 1996) What is happening inside learner's mind after change in behaviour (Schuman, 1996) Shifting to Construction Limitation Implication Constructivist VS objectivist suggest to Model Weakness Strength

6.2. Model

6.2.1. Definition mental picture help us understand something we cannot see or experience directly ( Dorin, Demmini & Gabel, 1990)

6.2.2. example Linear Model by Dick & Carey (1990 ) Spiral Model by Romiszowsi (1981) Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp & Bichelmeyer (1990) Oval Model by Kemp (1985) Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden (1996)

6.2.3. Technology instructive model Drill and Practice Computer based tutorial intelligent tutorial system Gange's 9-events of instruction 1. Gaining Attention 2. Informing the Learner of the objective 3. Stimulating Recall of Prerequisite Learned Capabilities 4. Presenting the Stimulus Material 5. Providing Learning Guidance 6. Eliciting the Performance 7. Providing Feedback 8. Assessing Performace 9. Enhancing retention and transfer self instruction and self learner Function of instructional events Reusable Learning Objects

6.2.4. Technology constructivist model

6.3. Conclusion

6.3.1. Objective approach anchor for learner Training VS Education

6.3.2. Advancement in technology branched constructivist

6.3.3. Increasing number of theoretical application

6.3.4. Increasing number of physical possibilities

6.3.5. limitation of learning theory mix and match/compare old new compare

6.3.6. Criteria for hypermedia learning exploration of relevant learning theories

6.3.7. Learning theory

7. Topic 3: Designing Instructional / Learning Technology Product 1

7.1. Define a Goal

7.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis (Performance, Task, Content Analysis

7.2.1. Analysis of job description

7.2.2. Analysis of job-related documents

7.2.3. Observation of people at work

7.2.4. Discussion with people about specific jobs

7.2.5. Extrapolation of task from customer's started trainning

7.3. Analyze Learners and Context

7.4. Write Performance/Learners objectivies

7.4.1. Performance objective

7.4.2. Instructional objectives

7.4.3. Behavior objective

7.4.4. Specific Instructional objectives

7.4.5. Learning outcome

7.5. Develop Assessment Strategy

7.5.1. Drill and practice

7.5.2. Essay

7.5.3. Problem solving

7.5.4. Task

7.6. Develop Instructional Strategy

7.7. Arrange Instructional Events

7.7.1. Gain attent

7.8. Multimedia learning

7.8.1. Occurance Student build mental representation from words and picture

7.8.2. Promise Student can learn more deeply verbal only method is not always working well

7.8.3. Multi media effect

7.8.4. Coherence effect

7.8.5. Spatial contiguity effect

7.8.6. personalization effect

7.8.7. Conclusion instructional design promote deeper learning in one media enviroment promote deep learning in other media Principle of instructional design do no change when learning environment change Learner-centered approach nature of human based on cognitive theory of multimedia design depend on understanding of human mind

7.9. Instructional design system 4C

7.9.1. 1. Learning task

7.9.2. 2. Supportive information

7.9.3. 3. Just -in-tIme (JIT) information

7.9.4. 4. Part-task practice

8. Topic 4: Designing Intructional/Learning Technology Product 2

8.1. Problem based learning

8.1.1. Constructivism 1. Understanding is in our interactions with the environment 2. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned 3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understanding

8.1.2. Instructional Principles 1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem 2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task 3. Design an authentic task 4. Design the task and learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning 5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution 6. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking 7. Encouraging testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts 8. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

8.1.3. Problem-based learning process examination of own learning environmnet Opportunity of reflect learner's belief student generate learning objective self-directed learning no assigned text evaluation of resource self-evalution outside of curriculum structure assessment Learning goal stimulate by environment facilitator model the metacognitive thinking Student develop strategy for identify learning issue Limitation no guarantee of content area Problem generation content domain Real problem Problem presentation student engage in authentic problem solving No highlighting the critical factor Facilitator role Small group learning tutoring Conclusion Goal PBL consistent with instruction from construction link between theory and practice students understanding social negotation case based approach Problem solving

9. Topic 5: Development of a Product

9.1. Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer, 2003)

9.1.1. Multimedia principle Integrating visual and verbal information in the learning object

9.1.2. Spilt-attention principle words and picture physically integrated

9.1.3. Redundancy principle same information in one format

9.1.4. Modality principle spoken words instead of written

9.1.5. Segmented principle multimedia message presented in students' pace

9.1.6. Pre-training principle familiar name and characteristic of concept to student

9.1.7. Coherence exclude extraneous material

9.1.8. Signaling highlight clue of essentail material

9.2. Four-Component Instructional Design model - 4C/ID model

9.3. Learning by Doing / Case-based Reasoning ( Schank, Berman & MacPhersoon, 1999)

9.3.1. Goal

9.3.2. Mission

9.3.3. Cover Story

9.3.4. Role

9.3.5. Activities

9.3.6. Resources

9.3.7. Feedback

9.4. Kolb Learning Cycle

9.4.1. Active Experimentation Planning/ trying our what you have learned

9.4.2. Concrete Experience Doing/having an experiment

9.4.3. Reflective Obervation Reviewing / reflecting on the experience

9.4.4. Abstract Conceptualization Concluding/ learning from the experience

9.5. Dufour's Learning by Doing

9.5.1. Experience the activity perform do it

9.5.2. Share the result and observation publicly

9.5.3. Process Discussion, looking at experience, analyze, reflect

9.5.4. Genralize connect the experience to real world

9.5.5. Apply learned and similar or different situation

9.6. Resource-based learning

9.6.1. Resources and tools

9.6.2. Activities

9.6.3. Support

9.6.4. Evaluation

9.7. Jonassen's Constructivist Learning Environment (1999)

9.7.1. Constructive

9.7.2. Collaborative

9.7.3. Conversational

9.7.4. Reflective

9.7.5. Contextualized

9.7.6. Complex

9.7.7. Intentional

9.7.8. Activity/Manipulative

9.7.9. Problems structure 1.1 Problem/Project Context A.Modeling 1.2 Problem/Project Representation B. Coahing 1.3 Problem/Project Manipulation C. Scaffolding 2. Related 3. Information 4. Cognitive 5. Conversational 6. Social

9.7.10. Problem types Logical problem eg. How can I divide the water in the first jug and second jug using only three jogs Algorithm Calculate area of triangle Story Problem How long for car A to overtake car B traveling at different speeds Rule-Using Problem Row many hours are required to rich the airport to meet my friend, and should i take bus, a taxi of walk Decision-making Problem Should i go to study in Australia Troubleshooting Problem Troubleshoot inoperative car light Diagnosis-Solution Problem Identifying and treating a common cold in your workplace Strategic Performance Managing a small team of designers developing a multimedia product Situated Case-Policy Problems Plan a visit to a local museum Design Problems Design a presentation to promote your school Dilemmas Should nuclear power station be build

10. Topic 6: Designing for Concept Learning

10.1. Theoretical perspectives on Collaborative Learning Tools

10.1.1. A Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors Motivation and Affective Factors Developmental and Social Factors Individual Differences

10.1.2. A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology

10.1.3. Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology

10.1.4. Zone of Proximal Development

10.1.5. Internalization

10.1.6. Cognitive Apprenticeship

10.1.7. Assisted Learning

10.1.8. Teleapprenticeship

10.1.9. Scaffolded Instruction

10.1.10. Intersubjectivity

10.1.11. Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis

10.1.12. Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community

10.1.13. Some Sociocultural "Ifs"

10.2. Traditonal Teacher centered model

10.2.1. guiding student

10.2.2. support student

10.3. Shift to Constructive activity of learner

10.4. Human computer interaction

10.4.1. Computer Supported Collaborative learning closer to real world