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2.3 Eukaryotic Cells by Mind Map: 2.3 Eukaryotic Cells
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2.3 Eukaryotic Cells

Module 2.3 Notes

It protects and maintains the shape of plant cells as well as providing a filtering mechanism to keep the cells from over-expanding with water.

2.3.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell -T.C.


Plant cells, Cell structure I

Animal cells, Cell structure II

Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -Carmen

1. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, bound by a double membrane. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus.

2. Eukaryotic DNA is linear; prokaryotic DNA is circular (it has no ends).

3. Eukaryotic DNA is complexed with proteins called "histones," and is organized into chromosomes; prokaryotic DNA is "naked," meaning that it has no histones associated with it, and it is not formed into chromosomes.

4. Both cell types have many, many ribosomes, but the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than those of the prokaryotic cell.

5. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is filled with a large, complex collection of organelles, many of them enclosed in their own membranes; the prokaryotic cell contains no membrane-bound organelles which are independent of the plasma membrane.

6. Eukaryotic cells are the largest cells, while Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells. A eukartotic cell is about 10 times bigger than a prokaryotic cell.

7. Eukaryotic cells either have a plasma membrane or a cell wall in addition to the plasma membrane; prokaryotic cells have a plasma membrane in addition to a bacterial cell wall.

State differences between plant and animal cells- Carmen

1.Plant cells are larger than animal cells.

2.Plant cells have chloroplasts unlike animal cells

3.Plant cells have a cell wall unlike animal cells.

4.Animal cells have a lot of lysosomes unlike plant cells.

5.Animal cells have a centrosome unlike plant cells

6.Plant cells have plasticids unlike animal cells

7.Vacuoles are conspicuous in plant cells than animal cells

8. Animal cells can be phagocytic (engulf other cells) unlike plant cells

9.Cells of Higher plants lack centrioles unlike animal cells.

10.Plant cells have plasmodesmata which links pores in the cell wall allow and communication between adjacent cells unlike animal cells

Nuevo nodo

Nuevo nodo

2.3.6 Outline two roles of extracellular components. -Sophia

Examples of the extracellular components

Cell wall, The plant cell wall is a rigid structure that surrounds cells., The cell walls provide support to plants holding them upright against gravity., Cell wall electron micorgraph

Animal extracellular matrix, animal cells secrete glycoproteins that form the extracellular matrix, Glycoproteins, Animal cells secrete glycoproteins, which are composed of a protein and a carbohydrate., Glycoproteins on the surface of lymphocytes allow them to stick to other types of cells and move across their surfaces., One example of glycoproteins found in the body are mucins, which are secreted in the digestive tracts. The sugars attached to mucins make them resistant to proteolysis by digestive enzymes., Glycoproteins on the surface of lymphocytes allow them to stick to other types of cells and move across their surfaces., Nuevo nodo

2.3.3 Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells. -Ricky

The electron micrograph of a hepatocyte in HA33 shows the nucleus (n) in the center and large regions of particulate glycogen (Gl).

There are numerous mitochondria (M) and abundant RER.

HA34 shows a higher magnification view of the RER and SER in a cell with much less glycogen than the previous one.

Notice that the glycogen particles are associated closely with the SER.

There are several places at the ends of the RER where the continuity between the two reticula can be clearly seen.

In the inset, tangential views of the RER are shown with the polysomes indicated by arrows.

In HA35, the intimate association of glycogen particles with SER membranes can be seen.

Notice the characteristic form of hepatocyte mitochondria.

The micrograph in HA36 shows a hepatocyte of an animal that had been treated with phenobarbital.

The abundant SER is due to the detoxification function of the SER.

In the lower right a bile canaliculus is seen between two hepatocytes.


2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with the functions of each named structure. -T.C.

Different functions of organelles

Nucleus, This is the largest of the organelles. The nucleus contains the chromosomes which during interphase are to be found the nucleolus.

Mitochondria, Location of aerobic respiration and a majot synthesis of ATP region

Golgi apparatus, Modification of proteins prior to secretion.

Lysozyme, Vesicles in the above diagram that have formed on the golgi apparatus. Containing hydrolytic enzymes. Functions include the digestion of old organelles, engulfed bacteria and viruses.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), Protein synthesis and packaging into vesicles.

Ribosomes, Tthe free ribosome produces proteins for internal use within the cell.

Plasma membrane, Controls which substances can enter and exit a cell. It is a fluid structure that can radically change shape.