Asia and the World Course Culminating Assignment (Soviet invasion of Afghanistan)

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Asia and the World Course Culminating Assignment (Soviet invasion of Afghanistan) by Mind Map: Asia and the World Course Culminating Assignment (Soviet invasion of Afghanistan)

1. Outcome

1.1. Soviets tried to remove or eliminate civilian populations from the countryside

1.1.1. Because that was where the Resistance was based

1.1.1.1. People from the Rural population fed and housed the Mujahideen

1.2. Soviet bombing destroyed entire villages, crops, and irrigation

1.2.1. Millions of people dead, homeless, or starving

1.3. Landmines hurt unsuspectiong Afghans

1.4. Refugee camps around Peshawar

1.4.1. Pakistan became overcrowded, unsanitary, and insufficiently supplied

1.5. Internal refugees fled from their region

1.6. From throughout the Arab world people gave money and aided the Mujahideen

1.7. Fifteen thousand Soviet soldiers

1.8. Billions of dollars had been spent each year to support troops in Afghanistan

1.9. US-made shoulder-launched antiaircraft in 1987

1.9.1. Shot down Soviet planes and hellicopters everyday

1.10. USSR fell apart in the early 1990s

1.10.1. Degradation to USSR image

1.10.2. Billions of dollars spent during the war

1.11. Establishment of a state full of religious hatred and hatred for richer nations

2. Why?

2.1. Wished to Expand their influence in Asia

2.2. Wanted to preserve the Communist government

3. Russia Leaves Afghanistan

3.1. Mikhail Gorbachev took Russia out of its situation with Afghanistan

3.2. Diplomatice pressure from around the world

3.3. Millitary failure

4. America

4.1. Put a ban on the export of grain to Russia

4.2. Ended the SALT talks taking place

4.3. Boycotted the Olympic Games

4.4. The invasion provided American Intelligence the opportunity to acquire any new Russian military hardware

5. By the end of the 1980's

5.1. Russia Left Afghanistan

5.2. Mujahdeen was at war with the Taliban fighters

5.3. Taliban getting power over the entire nation

5.4. Taliban were imposing strict laws on the Afghan population

6. The United Nations

6.1. Had condemned the invasion

6.1.1. The withdrawal of Russian forces had been vetoed by Russia

7. Russia's Invasion of Afghanistan

7.1. The Russians claimed

7.1.1. That they had been invited in by the Amin government

7.1.2. That they were not invading the country.

7.1.3. That their task was to support a legitimate government

7.1.4. That the Mujahideen were no more than terrorists.

7.2. Amin was shot by the Russians

7.2.1. Replaced him with Babrak Kamal

7.2.1.1. He needed Russian military support to keep him in power.

7.2.1.2. Puppet Leader for Russia

7.3. Mujahideen

7.3.1. Formidable opponent

7.3.2. Equipped with old rifles

7.3.3. Had knowledge of the mountains and weather conditions around Kabul

7.3.4. The Russians resorted to using napalm, poison gas and helicopter gun ships

7.4. Economy

7.4.1. Russia had a weak economy

7.4.2. The cost to maintaining such a vast force was crippling to the Russian Economy

7.5. World's second most powerful military power

7.5.1. Young conscript Russian soldiers

7.5.2. The Russian army had a reputation

7.6. Harsh environment of the Afghanistan mountains

7.6.1. Army boots lasted no more than 10 days before falling to bits

7.6.1.1. Many Russian soldiers deserted to the Mujahedin

7.6.2. Russian tanks were of little use there

8. Civil War

8.1. The prime minister, Hazifullah Amin

8.1.1. Wanted to make Afghanistan more 'Western'

8.1.2. Thousands of Muslim leaders

8.1.2.1. Had been arrested

8.1.2.2. Fled the capital

8.1.2.3. Went to hide in the mountains from Amin

8.1.3. Lead a communist based government

8.1.3.1. Communism rejects religion

8.1.3.1.1. The Islamic faith was common in the country.

8.1.3.2. Afghan people did not like the idea

8.2. Mujahideen

8.2.1. A guerilla force on a holy mission for Allah

8.2.1.1. Thousands of Afghan Muslims joined the Mujahideen

8.2.1.2. They wanted the overthrow of the Amin government.

8.2.1.3. The Mujahideen declared a jihad - a holy war

8.2.1.4. Controlled 75% of Afghanistan

8.2.1.5. Was extended to the Russians

8.2.1.5.1. Saw the Christian and Atheist Soviets controlling Afghanistan as an defilement of Islam as well as of their traditional culture

9. Support for the Mujahideen

9.1. Mujahideen received Financial and Military Support from the U.S.

9.2. United States primarily supported through the CIA

9.3. U.S. policymakers "fighting communism"

9.4. Muslims from other places came to the call of Jihad

9.5. Arab World

10. Controversy

10.1. Afghanistan received support from the U.S

11. The World Reacted