Bonding and Reactions

bonding/reactions mind map

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Bonding and Reactions by Mind Map: Bonding and Reactions

1. Polyatomic Compounds

1.1. Combinations of metals with polyatomic ions

1.2. Formulas: Same rules as ionic compounds except brackets are used when more than one ion group is needed

1.3. Naming: A combination of the name of the metal and the name of the ion. Example: CuSO4 Copper(||) sulfate

2. Covalent Compounds

2.1. HOFBrINCl-these are the 7 elements that occur in nature as diatomic molecules

2.2. Naming: 1) name the first element 2) name the second element and then change the ending to -ide Example: HCl hydrogen chloride

2.3. Prefixes: Non-metals or non-metals + metalloids. If more than one compound can be made from the same elements use prefixes to show the number of each kind of atom.

3. Polar Covalent Compounds

3.1. Have an odour

3.2. Do not conduct electricity

3.3. Easy to crush

3.4. Not soluble

3.5. Extremely low melting point due to London dispersion forces

3.6. You know the compound is polar covalent when the electronegativity is >0.4-1.7

4. Covalent Non-polar Compounds

4.1. Have an odour

4.2. Do not conduct electricity

4.3. Have a moderate hardness

4.4. Are soluble in water

4.5. Medium melting point due to dipole-dipole forces

4.6. You know the compound is non-polar covalent when the electronegativity is 0-0.4

5. Ionic Compounds

5.1. Do not have an odour

5.2. Solutions of ionic compounds do conduct electricity

5.3. Are hard brittle solids

5.4. Dissolve in water

5.5. Very high melting points

5.6. You know the compound is ionic when the electronegativity is >1.7

6. Multivalent Ions

6.1. Place a roman numeral of the cation charge after the transition metal in brackets

6.2. The charge on the metal is determined by comparison to the total charge of the anions. ex: FeCl2, 2Cl = -2 so Fe is 2 iron (||) oxide

7. Ionic Compounds

7.1. These compounds are composed of a metal and a non metal

7.2. For naming them add (ide) ending to the non metal

7.3. Formulas: Excluding hydrogen the element farther to the left comes first. ex: KCl. If you have hydrogen it comes last except for when the other element is from group 16 or 17. ex: LiH and HCl. If the elements are frm the same group the one lower on the periodic table comes first. ex: SiC

8. Activity Series

8.1. Predicting whether a reaction will occur or not using the activity series

8.2. If the first metal in the equation is higher than the other one, then a reaction will occur. ex. Mg+Fe2O3 (magnesium is higher than iron so a reaction will occur) it will be Fe + MgO

8.3. If the first metal is lower than no reaction will occur. ex. Ag + KNO3 (silver is lower than potassium resulting in no reaction.

9. Types of Chemical Reactions

9.1. Synthesis: 2 elements come together to form a compound. A+B->AB

9.2. Decomposition: A compound that breaks down to make two elements. ex: AB->A+B

9.3. Single Displacement: occurs when one element reacts with an ionic compound. The single one replaces one of the elements in the compound. Metals always switch with metals and non-metals always switch with non-metals. ex: A+BC=B+AC

9.4. Double Displacement: One ionic compound reacts with another ionic compound. The cations switch places. ex: AB+CD=AD+BC

9.5. Combustion: Burning of a hydrocarbon in the presence of oxygen. Hydrocarbon is a covalent compound made up of hydrogen and carbon. One of the reactants is always oxygen and the products always consist of carbon dioxide and water

10. Acids

10.1. All acids start with H

10.2. Binary acids are H with a non-metal. ex: HCl. Oxyacids and H with a polyatomic ion. ex: H2SO4

10.3. Naming: the name of an acid is based off of the name of the negative ion that is part of the acid.

10.4. Naming without oxygen (Binary): take the base of the negative ion and add hydro before and ic after then add acid. ex. HF would be hydrofluoric acid.

10.5. Naming with oxygen (Oxyacids): this is hydrogen with a polyatomic ion. First you look to find out what polyatomic ion is in the formula, then if it ends in ate you take the base and add ic to the end. ex: HNO3 would be nitrate so the acid would be called nitric acid. If the polyatomic ion ends in ite then you take the base and add ous. ex: HNO2 would be nitrite so the acid would be called nitrous acid.

11. Hydrates

11.1. Trap water molecules inside the solid structure

11.2. Naming: add hydrate with the prefix telling you the number of water molecules. name ex: copper (||) sulfate pentahydrate formula ex: Cu(SO)4∙5H2O

11.3. The water is not attached or bound to the original compound

12. Lewis Dot Diagrams

12.1. An electron dot diagram or Lewis dot diagram are representations of the valence electrons of an atom that uses dots around the symbol of an element.

12.2. The number of dots represents the number of valence electrons.

13. Bohr Diagram

13.1. Protons and neutrons in the nucleus

13.2. 2 electrons in first shell and up to 8 in all other shells

13.3. Valence electrons are located on the outermost valence shell

13.4. How to draw diagram: 1) figure out how many protons and neutrons that belong in the nucleus. 2) put electrons in shells (atomic number)