Provide universal and affordable access to the Internet.

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Provide universal and affordable access to the Internet. by Mind Map: Provide universal and affordable access to the Internet.

1. Resource 4: After knowing the current situation of internet access, I want to explore more on the main three factors mentioned before, here I focus on the first one.

1.1. Keyword: internet infrastructure?

1.1.1. What caused the absence of network infrastructure in parts of the world?

1.2. Source: Youtube How does the INTERNET work? | ICT #2

1.2.1. This video explains infrastructures needed to get internet access, like satellite and antenna, optical fibre cables, cell towers... Situation in the least deveoped country and areas? Source: ITU (International Telecommunications Union) From this report provided by ITU, we can learn more things about the current situation in LDCs, by 2016, almost all the LDCs own 3G network, and now the question is how to develop 4G or even 5G network in countries all over the world and how to increase user rate. Another problem is "electricity". "Access to reliable electricity is a major constraint in LDCs. Only 39 per cent of the population has access to electricity in these countries (simple average)". Then a large difference between LDCs in national backbone occurs. A substantial fraction of the cost of deploying national fibre-optic backbone infrastructure resides in the associated civil works, making the initial capital cost of building backbone networks very high. There are also requirements to obtain permissions for rights of way, which take time. The high sunk cost and delays in rolling out broadband means that the barriers to entry are high, but regardless of the barriers to entry, most countries recognize that national backbones are critical infrastructure. ...

2. Resource 5: Here I focus on the second main factor: Price.

2.1. Keyword: Price

2.1.1. How much do we need to get internet access?(internet connection fees and price of devices) Can all of us afford it?

2.2. Source: Mapping Internet Prices Around the World

2.2.1. Here, with this map, we can see a very clear "double-pain" in internet access, for example, on average, internet costs in Asia and Russia tend to be among the lowest, while access is prohibitively expensive in sub-Saharan Africa and in certain parts of Oceania. "In Burkina Faso, the priciest of all, internet costs an astonishing $963 per month! On the other hand, a spacious apartment in the country’s capital will only cost you about $460/month."

2.3. Source: WorldData Average income around the world

2.3.1. Through this website, we can see that the average individual income between countries is very different and has a large gap. With this data, "Double Pain" with internet access is comfirmed, which means that BOP consumers may have to pay a high price for internet access while companies struggle to explore market in BOP.

3. Resource 6: Here, I focus on the third factor: willingness.

3.1. Keyword: willingness of internet access

3.1.1. After exploring the materiel aspect, I want to know more about people's willingness and their real need of internet access.

3.2. Source: Intellectual Property Watch ITU: 4 Of 5 People In LDCs Can Access Mobile Networks, But Are Not Using Internet - Intellectual Property Watch

3.2.1. According to ITU, more than four out of five people in LDCs have access to a mobile-cellular network, but at current growth rates, less than one-quarter of the population in LDCs will be online by 2020. And the key barrier to getting LDC populations online is a lack of skills needed to use the internet as a result of socioeconomic challenges like educational levels and gender equality.

3.3. Source: ITU Press Release

4. Resource 7: I want to know how can we do to achieve this goal. The first thing is to expand supply-side infrastucture of high-speed internet access.

4.1. Keyword: Expanding supply-side infrastructure.

4.1.1. To break this "Double Pain", especially in LDCs, the first thing is to make internet reach to "the last mile", which needs infrastructure construction.

4.2. Source: David J. Grimshaw and Sian Lewis

4.2.1. Although Africa lacks a lot of resources, the solar energy resources in Africa are indeed very abundant. If they can be used reasonably, it is a very good way of power supply.

4.3. Source: ITU (International Telecommunications Union)

4.3.1. With 3G network constructed, now it is a great chance for LDCs to develop themselves using 4G or even 5G, which is also very essential for people. With help of other developed countries or cooperations with international telecom companies like Korea Telecom and Huawei, the governments need to make great efforts to construct its national high-speed network system. Then their people could have the chance to get high-speed internet access.

5. Resource 8: Then I turn my eyes on the users.

5.1. Keyword: Willing to get internet access

5.1.1. Even the country can provide internet access, not all the people want to access it due to lack of education or other social challenges, so how can we solve this problem?

5.2. Source: Youtube 10 Least Developed Countries in the World

5.2.1. This video shows the 10 least developed countries and their challenges. What is common among them is lack of basic education for their people without that they can not use internet access even though they can afford it. So it is very urgent to develop its educational system in a long term.

5.2.2. What's more, all of these countries face a low GDP, low average individual income and even a deeply low rate of employment. People in these countries earn their life in very terrible condition. Facing with hunger and instability, internet access seems not to be so important for them. So the most urgent is to improve their human development index by building a stable national environment and increase individual income by focusing on national construction in various aspects, and fully using help from NGOs and others well-developed countries.

5.3. Source: Youtube Since the Revolution: Women’s Rights and Religious Freedom in Egypt

5.3.1. It is also very important to protect women's right of internet access. due to historical and religious reasons, women are be seen as inferior to men. Even now this situation could occur in some countries and areas. What we need to do is not only provide internet access, but aslo let all the people can use it and willing to use it without any differenciation.

6. Resource 9: Then I need to explore how to make internet access affordable to all.

6.1. Keyword: Affordable

6.1.1. When we want to use internet, we also need to be able to pay for it.

6.2. Source: Youtube Designing business to end poverty: Base of the Pyramid (BoP) HUB

6.2.1. To help BOP to improvement their living conditions, it is very important to help them to develop themselves like the video showing.

6.2.2. For companies, to avoid "double pain" and to fully explore BOP market, it is very important to develop a new business model and provide special product or service for BOP consumers by fully understanding their needs. For internet access, providing affordable devices to BOPs or constructing public internet facilities are essential, the same for designing a suitable internet access service with lower cost for them.

6.3. Source: Youtube The village that built its own wi-fi network - BBC Africa

6.3.1. With help of international institutions and fully using its own resources, BOP consumers could also get a high quality, cheap, affordable internet access, while this process can also bring job chances and development.

7. Resource 10: Other interesting things about universal and affordable internet access.

7.1. Keyword: Political limits

7.1.1. As we mentioned before, there are countries who have the ability to have universal and affordable internet access, but choose to block it like North Korea. So how can we do?

7.2. Source: Wikipedia China Internet Security Law - Wikipedia

7.2.1. China Internet Security Law prevent Chinese citizens from browsing foreign websites and using some foreign apps, such as facebook and What's APP...

7.3. Source: Wikipedia Internet in North Korea - Wikipedia

7.3.1. South Korean Internet users must comply with Trade Laws with North Korea (Article 9 Section 2) in which one needs to have the Ministry of Unification's approval to contact North Koreans through their websites.

8. Resource2 : I expand my search in a larger scale.

8.1. Keyword: Access

8.1.1. What is the global network coverage rate?

8.2. Source: Wikipedia Global Internet usage - Wikipedia

8.2.1. In 2019, nearly half of the world's population could get access to Internet, and 47% of population in the delevoping world is internet users while this rate could attain over 86%. This means now in this digital and globally connecting world, there are lots of people who can still not enjoy the internet world, especially in developing countries. So, which country has the highest network coverage rate among population? and which is the lowest? Source: WorldBank Data Individuals using the Internet (% of population) | Data Through this webpage, we can find out that in Europe and North America, these well developed area, the rate of internet users among its population is pretty high which is totally different in Africa. In other words, high rate of internet users may have some connections with country's development. Usually a high developed country has a high rate of internet users.

9. Resource1: I begin my search!

9.1. Keyword: Internet

9.1.1. What is Internet? Why internet is so important and must be used all over the world?

9.2. Source: Google

9.2.1. From this document, we can know that "The internet promotes inclusion, efficiency, and innovation". Internet, this word could always be linked with information, in fact, with internet, we can get, send, process information which are basic functions of internet, and with all thoses functions, we can make great things! So making internet accessible to all is very important!

9.3. Source: Youtube How the Internet Works in 5 Minutes

9.3.1. Resource 8:

9.3.2. This video tells us what is internet and how it works?

10. Resource 3: I want to learn more about internet service.

10.1. Keyword: Internet acess

10.1.1. What should we do to connect to internet? Or what materiels are needed to provide internet access?

10.2. Source: Wikipedia Internet access - Wikipedia

10.2.1. In conclusion, to get connected to internet, we need a device having this function and must be exposed to an area that has internet signal. To put it simply, two kinds of firms need to work together to provide internet access, device producer and ISPs (Internet Service Provider). The firsrt one need to provide afforable devices and the second need to build internet base stations to spread internet signals. What are the factors preventing people from connecting to the Internet? Source: UNDP Goal 9 targets Source: GSAM GSMA - Network Coverage Maps Source: Statista Average smartphone price by region 2019 | Statista Summary: At present, there are still many factors hindering the coverage of the Internet worldwide. The first is the lack of Internet infrastructure such as electricity and base stations due to poverty and other reasons in the least developed countries and areas; the second is that some people in the world do not want to use the Internet due to lack of education or other reasons ;at the same time, using the network will require costs, including the purchase of devices, network costs, etc., not all people can pay for these. Except all the factors above, there are still other factors like political limit in internet access in North Korea, and limit of access to foreign web in China.