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1. Specifiers: aspect within a phrase depands on the category of the head.

2. Preposition phrase (PP)

3. Head: the nucleus around which a phrase is built.

4. The coordination test: a group of words forms a constitution like and, or, but. ex: the children stopped at the corner and looked both ways.

5. The formation of questions require use of a structure building operation called "Move". Traditionally known as transforms an exiting structure.

6. The movement test: a constituent can be moved as a single unit to a different position within a sentence. ex: They stopped at the corner At the corner, they stopped.

7. Complements: provide information about entities and locations whose exixtence is implied by the head.

8. Phrasal categories

8.1. Noun phrase (NP)

8.2. Verb phrase (VP)

8.3. Sentence (S)

9. A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.

9.1. Lexical categories

9.1.1. Noun (boy, dog, desk, etc).

9.1.2. Verb (run, talk, jump, etc.)

9.1.3. Adjective (happy, brave, short, etc.)

9.1.4. Preposition (to, in, on, etc.)

9.1.5. Adverb (slowly, quietly, always, etc.)

9.2. Non lexical categories

9.2.1. Determiner (the, a, this, these, etc.)

9.2.2. Auxiliary verb Modal (will, can, etc.) Non modal (be have, etc.)

9.2.3. Conjuction (and, but, or,etc.)

9.2.4. Degree word (too, so, very, etc.)

10. Attempt to specify how the phrases in a sentence are structured.

10.1. NP -- Art N

10.2. PP -- P NP

10.3. S -- NP VP

10.4. Verb phrase (VP)

11. The syntax tree is a tree representation of the program structure

12. constituents or the existence of syntactic units found in trees can be verified with the help of special test.

12.1. The subtitutiontion test: syntactic unit can be replaced by an element such as they, it or do so. ex: the children stopped at the corner. they stopped at the corner or the children stopped there.