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Obesity by Mind Map: Obesity
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Obesity

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Introduction

Objective

therapeutic decision making

medical education, useful in guiding, primary and secondary prevention

characterization of subjects in research protocols

examine, roles of metabolic, body composition, cardiovascular disease risk

Subtypes

Metabolically healthy, but obese (MHO), due to, lower visceral fat levels, earlier start of obesity, profile, normal to high levels of insulin sensitive, normal metabolic profile

Metabolically Obese, but normal wight(MONW), due to, higher fat mass, higher plasma triglycerids, higher visceral fat and liver content, profile, normal body mass index, risk factors, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease

Metabolically Healthy, but Obese (MHO)

profile

large quantities of fat mass

normal - high levels of insulin sensitivity

favorable cardiovascular risk profiles

chrasteristics, low visceral fat, high body mass index, high fat mass, high insulin sensitivity, high HDL, low triglycerides

Population

20%

Women, more favorable lipid profile evidenced by, lower fasting triglycerids, high HDL, lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations

Variables

amount of visceral fats associated with variations in insulin sensitivity

an earlier start(<20 years) of obesity associated with a more favorable metabolic profile (Brochu), Muscelli, + association between duration of obesity and insulin sensitivity, explanation, 1.-increase duration of obesity (childhood onset), 2.-metabolic adaptations, 3.-normal levels of insulin sensitivity

Researchers

NOT find, differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity energy expenditure

Even in high levels of body fat, lower levels of visceral fat confer metabolic advantages, obese or nonobese Japanese, normal visceral fat area, decrease obesity's risk factors

Lamarche, visceral fat accumulation >130 cm3, associated decrease insulin sensitivity

Matsuzawa, Japanese Sumo wrestlers, "metabolically healthy", normal amounts of visceral adipose tissue, normal lipid levels, despite consuming 5000-7000 kcal/d, However, metabolic abnormalities developed, such as increased insulin resistance due decrease physical activity

Risks

MHO lower risks than obese, but higher risk than general population

+visceral fat, - insulin sensitivity , + cacrdiovascular disease

larger adipocytes, increase insulin resistance

normal size adipocytes, onset of obesity

Metabolically Obese, but Normal Weight (MONW)

Profile

High Visceral Fat

Low body mass index

High fat mass

Low lean body mass

Low insulin sensitivity

High liver fat

High triglycerides

Charasteristics

Young people

Display premature signs of, insuline resistance, hyperinsuilnemia, dyslipidemia

Increase diseases, diabetes, could go undetected for years, due to, young age, normal body weight, cardiovascular disease

Suggestions

body composition and body fat, play a role in development of metabolic complications

high prevalence in general population (20)

Physical daily energy expenditure appears to influence insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors

Low levels of physical activity energy expenditure could favor a positive balance

Higher fat mass women could be mediated indirectly by low cardio fitness

Excessive fat on upper part or abdomen -> risk diabetes and cardio diseases

Increase liver fat-> decrease insulin sensitivity

Studies

Zavaroni, higher plasma triglycerides and lower HDL, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, young(39 yr) nonobese men and women with hyperinsulinemia

Katsuki, BMI, visceral fat area, higher young Japanese MONW men, conclusion, increased levels of visceral fat and plasma triglycerides, associated insulin resistance

Seppala Lindroos, more liver fat accumulation in nonobese men, lower HDL, High plasma insulin, High triglycerides

Dvorak, examined phenotypic characteristics associated with MONW young men

Risks

Physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness, development of diabetes 2