Geography of Canada

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Geography of Canada by Mind Map: Geography of Canada

1. Geography, Canada and Me

1.1. What is geography?

1.1.1. geography is the study of the Earth, its landforms, its resources and processes, the people who live in the Earth and their connection to the environment.

1.1.2. Geography is the study of the Earth

1.2. Three themes of Geography

1.2.1. Human geography

1.2.2. Physical geography

1.2.3. Geomatics

1.3. 5 themes of geography

1.3.1. The world in spatial terms (location) Focuses on the question where? Where is it? How can I get there?

1.3.2. places and regions each place has certain characteristics to them How can we break up the different areas of Canada?

1.3.3. change Everything changes, either slowly or quickly Why is this change happening? what can we do with it?

1.3.4. connections and interconnections Everything is connected in some way We rely on systems and systems rely on us. We are not whole unless everything is alright.

1.3.5. Environment and society Without environment, there is no society. Without society, there is no environment. We need each other to survive.

1.4. Cardinal directions

1.4.1. directions are important for our way of life 16 point compass rose Bearing system Azimuth system

1.5. local location

1.5.1. 6 figure military grid accurate to 100m UTM

1.5.2. alphanumeric grid easy to use, but not very accurate uses both numbers and letters

1.6. Time zones

1.6.1. Canada has 6 time zones. that's about half of Russia!

1.6.2. Greenwich, ENG 0

1.7. Provinces and territories

1.7.1. capitals + Provinces all 13 "Over Canada" Peggy's cove Niagara falls

1.8. What is a map?

1.8.1. A map is a 2D representation of features on the Earth. Topographic maps Longitude + Latitude Thematic maps New node

1.8.2. The study of maps is called cartography 12 cartographic guildlines

1.9. Scale

1.9.1. 5 types of scale. Graphical scale New node Word Scale Representative ratio Not to scale Scale unkown

1.10. Contour lines

1.10.1. They show elevation on a map. Rules: 1. They never touch or overlap 2. they are continuous 3. The closer the contour lines, the steeper the land.

2. People on the land

2.1. Industries

2.1.1. four types of industries Primary agriculture secondary manufacturing tertiary most people work in this industry; service researching researching

2.1.2. refers to particular types of labour that are done

2.1.3. entrepreneurs are people who run their own businesses

2.1.4. education has nothing to do with the levels of industry

2.2. work

2.2.1. this is important for Canadian life unemployment happens for many reasons; laziness is very uncommon under employed single mothers, visible minorities and low education are mos likely to be umemployed employment is affected by the cost of operating a business often relocate to lower costs

2.2.2. working poor; those who work, but cannot afford basic needs

2.2.3. volunteering; people who work for free

2.2.4. single industry towns

2.3. resources

2.3.1. many companies are lured by Canadaès resources resources are the base of materials

2.3.2. a resource is anything found in nature that is of value non renewable resources operate in geologic time renewable resources operate in human time flow resources operate in the moment fouund

2.3.3. capitalist vs. environmentalist money vs. the earth environmentalist: we are the world capitalist: money$$$$

2.4. fishing

2.4.1. Pacific, Atlantic, freshwater The Atlantic fishery collapsed because of overfishing. find cod,herring there. destructive fishing practices lots of fish because of the shallow waters pacific fisheries fear that they will collapse like the Atlantic fish found: salmon!! Freshwater fisheries are around the great lakes area Lake Erie the most profitable lake; shallow waters three groups fighting for control of fisheries: Commercial, sport, Native

2.5. agriculture

2.5.1. if you ate today, thank a farmer 1 in 5 jobs are related to agriculture farming is based off of chance growing season is above 5*C extensive and intensive farming intensive farming; small land, high value perishable's foods with more workers and few equipment extensive farming is large land, non perishable foods with lots of equipment

2.5.2. in the 1880s 80% of Canadians were farmers, now less than 3%

2.5.3. Niagara fruitbelt

2.6. forestry

2.6.1. 10% of worlds forests in Canada almost 1/2 of Canada is forests two basic types of wood; softwood and hardwood

2.6.2. the industry creates a lot of money ($22 billion) high value of wood caused clear cutting practices over consumption threatens the forestry industry at every level. RECYCLING!!

2.7. mining

2.7.1. everything in our lives has to do with mining mining produces the high multiplier effect; where the more you process it, the higher value there is.

2.7.2. a mineral is a naturally occurring pure chemical compound( including elements) four types industrial minerals; diamonds metallic minerals; gold structural minerals; gravol fuel minerals; coal

2.7.3. types of mining open pit mining; for minerals near the edge then go lower in the Earth strip mining; for minerals close to the surface of the Earth underground mining; for minerals further in the earth; most dangerous

2.8. energy

2.8.1. Canada is one of the top energy users in the world non renewable and renewable resources. Canada has fossil fuels, hydrocarbons, hydro electricity and nuclear coal used to be popular, but it causes too much pollution OIL!!! it is found underwater too, but very difficult to extract also in the North, too expensive to bother...for now

2.8.2. greenhouse gases trap heat to the Earth. global warming; climate change carbon- oxygen cycle

2.8.3. Natural gas usually found above oil, but it very temperamental; use with caution good for home heating, used in power plants to generate electricity

2.8.4. carbon footprint Average Canadian footprint is 8 hectares figure out how much space we need to live our lives

2.9. transportation

2.9.1. transportation of goods that are not available in different areas. highway 401 is the largest highway in North America Cars are the most popular form of transportation for Canadians

2.9.2. four major waterway; Hudson bay, great lakes, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean.

3. International Interconnections

3.1. Canada: international team player

3.1.1. Canada is important internationally seen as compassionate and caring

3.1.2. commonwealth: former British colonies 25% of world's population south Africa, Canada, India

3.2. United Nations

3.2.1. formed after WWII there are 192 countries conflict resolution, peacekeeping, diplomacy

3.2.2. other organizations: UNESCO, UNICEF, NATO (north Atlantic Treaty Association), World Bank, NGO's

3.3. Imports/ Exports

3.3.1. Trade is all about exchanging goods and services Importing is all about bringing in goods from foreign places; exporting is giving goods to foreign places

3.3.2. Importing gives use things we cannot grow or manufacture in Canada; exporting gives us $$$ Canada exports raw materials, auto mobiles, airplanes, nuclear products 80% of our exports are to USA Trade surplus

3.3.3. fair trade vs. Protectionism NAFTA( North American Free Trade Act) We have free trade with Mexico and USA Tariff, Quota, Subsidy, all forms of protectionism

3.3.4. GDP ( gross Domestic Product) measures a country's worth. Canada's GDP was 1.57 trillion some companies make more than most countries' GDP's they have more power

3.4. Globalization

3.4.1. the world is a global village and everyone is connected 6th degree of separation ( we are related by 6 people) cultural awareness vs. cultural exploitation

3.5. Quality of Life

3.5.1. world heritage sites one in Quebec city GDP shows standard of living UNESCO ( United Nations Educational, Scientific and cultural Organization)

3.6. What's a Canadian?

3.6.1. does Canada have culture or are we American wannabe's? Do stereotypes define us?

3.7. International policies

3.7.1. First Aid: Helping developing countries who need support (myth in sorts) Donated 0.285 of its GDP

3.7.2. Peace Keeping: Lester B. Pearson, A force to avoid conflict Syria conflict

3.7.3. Human Rights: Fighting for the rights of people Lloyd Axelworthy

4. Canada's physical diversity

4.1. Earth

4.1.1. 4.6 billion years old possibly formed by a meteor

4.1.2. oblete spheroid

4.1.3. third planet from the sun looks like a large blue and green ball from space

4.1.4. Different parts of the Earth Mantle The liquidy area just under the crust and above the core. core the centre of the earth. crust the hard outside layer of the Earth; what we see.

4.2. systems

4.2.1. a group of different parts that connect to make a whole Human systems Communication systems, transportation systems, information systems etc... Natural systems Ecosystems What makes a natural system?

4.3. synergy

4.3.1. when the sum has more value than the parts

4.4. Physical regions

4.4.1. There are seven landform regions. 3 highland Appalachian Cordillera Inutian Mountains 3 lowlands Hudson Bay lowlands Great lakes/ St.Lawrence lowlands. Interior plains. Canadian Shield.

4.5. Soil

4.5.1. 4 components air, soil, water and humus (dead stuff) layers:Dead leaves, A horizon- humus layer, B horizon- subsoil, Bedrock, Parent material. Podzols are found in forests with deciduous trees. chernozems are thick grassland areas that cover large areas of the prairies.

4.5.2. flora is plant life

4.5.3. fauna is animal life.

4.6. Plate tectonics

4.6.1. in 1915, Alfred Weigner came up with continental drift. He noticed how the earth looked like a big puzzle. Evidence: Geologic fit Fossil evidence Geologic match In 1960's J. Tuzo Wilson came up with Plate tectonics. This is where the Earth is on plates that are moving away from each other slowly.

4.7. Era

4.7.1. 4 geologic eras Pre Cambrian era oldest and longest era. The Canadian shield was being formed. Mostly igneous rock being found. Shield worn down by erosion and first single cell organisms. Paleozoic Age of the invertebrates. Plates begin to collide. The Appalachian mountains are forming. 375 million years long. Mesozoic Age of the reptiles. Birds and mammals appear. Western cordillera forming. Cenozoic Age of the hominids( humans) Most of Canada covered in glaciers. Formed most of Canada today.


4.8.1. Bodies of Water Water moderates temperature Lake effect snow

4.8.2. Latitude (temperature) further from the equator, cooler the temperature. albedo

4.8.3. Ocean current water does not change temperature as quickly as air does.The water temperature will have an affect on the areas surrounding them. currents travelling to equator are are cooler and currents travelling away from equator are warm.

4.8.4. Relief/ Landforms moist air forced up a mountain can result in precipitation. on the other side there's dry air.

4.8.5. Wind/Air masses air moves in large volumes called air masses temperature and moisture of air masses depend on their origination.

4.8.6. Elevation/ Altitude Air mass edges are called fronts air altitude increases temperature decreases.

4.9. Macro spheres

4.9.1. hydrosphere All of the Earth's water in it's solid, liquid and gas forms

4.9.2. biosphere The area inside the earth where life can exist

4.9.3. lithosphere The earth's outer layer of rock

4.9.4. atmosphere All of the earth's gases.

4.10. Convection

4.10.1. When convection pushes the crust together you get mountains. (it compresses and folds)

4.10.2. When convection pulls the crust apart it forms cracks. (valleys). A fault appears causing earthquakes. When two faults appear at the same time, it causes a rift valley. There is a rift valley between Ottawa and the New York state.

4.10.3. Erosion is the wearing down of something. Wind, water ice and gravity are factors of erosion. the debris is moved somewhere else by nature. (desposition) a mound of debris in between two glaciers is called a moraine. ( there is one in Oakville) glaciers are overgrown land icebergs. They grow shrink and move.

4.11. Rocks

4.11.1. three types of rocks igrneous pumice Intrusive extrusive made from magma inside t he Earth and then cooled inside or outside of the earth. metamorphic slate It is a mixture of both rocks;hence the name metamorphic. sedimentary sandstone made from sediments under the sea Are all formed in neverending cycle. It could be a web because you can go from one point to another easily.

4.12. Climate vs weather

4.12.1. what is weather/ weather is what is happening at a specific time.

4.12.2. what is climate? climate is the patterns that are watched over along period of time (100 years). climate is regular while weather can be unpredictable.

4.12.3. factors that affect both: temperature and precipitation. frontal precipitation. when 2 fronts meet. The warm front is pushed over the cold front. As air rises and cools its condenses into water droplets. Eventually precipitation occurs. orographic precipitation. wind, water vapour, rises, cools, condenses, clouds form, rain falls, yay orographic! convectional precipitation. As the earth's surface is warmed, warm air rises, cools and causes condensation. Eventually heavy down occurs. Happens in continental areas.

4.13. vegetaition

4.13.1. a biome is a large region on Earth Thee boreal is the largest biome in the world. Deciduous trees- 63% of Canadian forests coniferous trees- 22% mixed- the rest

5. Canada's Cultural Diversity

5.1. population

5.1.1. population is the number of people who live in a given area at a given time. population is dynamic

5.1.2. population density this is the meausre of the number of people who live in a standardized area. Canada's population density is 3.1 people per km2.

5.1.3. four factors birth rate, death rate, immigration, emigration birth rate the amount of babies born in a population. Usually written in a rate per 1000 people. death rate is the amount of people who die in a population. It is usually written as a rate per 1000 people. immigration is when people move from one country to another. Emigration is when people move out of a country to another. calculating natural increase: birth rate- death rate

5.2. cloropleth mapping.

5.2.1. using colour shades to represent an amount of something using 3-6 different classes. can only use one colour (moncromatic)

5.3. settlement

5.3.1. Ecumene: where the population lives. This is the Windsor- Quebec city corridor

5.3.2. different types of settlements. hamlet, village, town, city, megacity, CMA, megatopolis...

5.3.3. census: stats Canada. demography is the study of population trends. rates can be shown as a percentage

5.4. age-sex pyramids

5.4.1. shows population patterns. Divides the population by age and by gender males on the left, females on the right

5.5. dependency load

5.5.1. 15 and under and 65 and over they take up appropriately 1/3 of Canada's population. BABY BOOMERS!!

5.6. flow maps

5.6.1. uses arrows and colours to show importance. the bigger the symbol,the more important it is. the fatter the arrow, the more important it is.

5.7. immigration

5.7.1. people immigrate fro many reasons push + pull factors Some factors are: war, education, prosecution, refuge etc... push factors are what make you want to leave a country pull factors are what attract you to another country

5.7.2. how to get into Canada: if you have a health issue or a criminal record, there's a very slim to none chance of getting in. different classes to apply into: currently you need a minimum of 67 of the 100 points to get inon the test. education is the highest category on the test.

5.8. multiculturalism... a myth?

5.8.1. a policy that encourages cultural diversity and respect there are ethnic enclaves in Canada (Greek Town)

5.8.2. tossed salad vs. melting pot assimilation

5.9. cultural imprints

5.9.1. social imprints the ways that people behave language, religion, family traditions, clothing, food, sports

5.9.2. physical imprints The ways people affect their surroundings Architectures, speciality shops, restaurants.

5.10. urban settlements

5.10.1. breaking up the land "Long lot" system section system line+ concessions system

5.10.2. over 90% of Canadians live in urban areas. there are transportation cities, manufacturing cities, resource cities, service cities

5.10.3. many ways to use the land residential housing Institutional + public buildings schools, libraries transportation roads, highways, parking lots Open space parks Industrial stores, factories commercial landuse; meant for buying and selling goods only Low order, middle order, high order types of stores

5.11. big cities

5.11.1. Alienation feeling alone among thousands of people

5.11.2. poverty cost of living is higher

5.11.3. crime more people+ more crime

5.11.4. physical blight functional blight areas that cannot be used for their original purpose frictional blight this is when there is conflicting landuse deterioration of landscape.

5.11.5. Urban fringe mixed land use

5.12. Indigenous people

5.12.1. also known as first nations often tried to be destroyed for the land by Europeans colonize, kill, residential schools us vs. them