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Geography of Canada by Mind Map: Geography of Canada
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Geography of Canada

Geography, Canada and Me

What is geography?

geography is the study of the Earth, its landforms, its resources and processes, the people who live in the Earth and their connection to the environment.

Geography is the study of the Earth

Three themes of Geography

Human geography

Physical geography


5 themes of geography

The world in spatial terms (location), Focuses on the question where?, Where is it? How can I get there?

places and regions, each place has certain characteristics to them, How can we break up the different areas of Canada?

change, Everything changes, either slowly or quickly, Why is this change happening? what can we do with it?

connections and interconnections, Everything is connected in some way, We rely on systems and systems rely on us. We are not whole unless everything is alright.

Environment and society, Without environment, there is no society. Without society, there is no environment. We need each other to survive.

Cardinal directions

directions are important for our way of life, 16 point compass rose, Bearing system, Uses both numbers and directions. (N*0), Azimuth system, just uses numbers

local location

6 figure military grid, accurate to 100m UTM

alphanumeric grid, easy to use, but not very accurate, uses both numbers and letters

Time zones

Canada has 6 time zones. that's about half of Russia!

Greenwich, ENG 0

Provinces and territories

They are not divided by province.

capitals + Provinces all 13, "Over Canada", Peggy's cove, Niagara falls

What is a map?

A map is a 2D representation of features on the Earth., Topographic maps, Longitude + Latitude, Thematic maps, New node

The study of maps is called cartography, 12 cartographic guildlines


5 types of scale., Graphical scale, New node, Word Scale, Representative ratio, Not to scale, Scale unkown

Contour lines

They show elevation on a map., Rules: 1. They never touch or overlap 2. they are continuous 3. The closer the contour lines, the steeper the land.

Canada's physical diversity


4.6 billion years old, possibly formed by a meteor

oblete spheroid

third planet from the sun, looks like a large blue and green ball from space

Different parts of the Earth, Mantle, The liquidy area just under the crust and above the core., lava; magma, core, the centre of the earth., crust, the hard outside layer of the Earth; what we see.


a group of different parts that connect to make a whole, Human systems, Communication systems, transportation systems, information systems etc..., Natural systems, Ecosystems, Macro systems, Hydrosphere, What makes a natural system?, displays synergy, supports all living things, are driven by energy from the sun, are connected to one another in complex relationships, decomposes and recycles all waste, are affected natural and human influence, are not well understood by humans, operate on very long timelines, use all four spheres


when the sum has more value than the parts

Physical regions

Both the Appalachian mountains and the cordillera are landform regions found in Canada. Population varies based on the physical regionsBLOWER has different effects on each physical region

There are seven landform regions., 3 highland, Appalachian, Cordillera, Inutian Mountains, 3 lowlands, Hudson Bay lowlands, Great lakes/ St.Lawrence lowlands., Interior plains., Canadian Shield.


The best soil in Canada is found under cities

4 components, air, soil, water and humus (dead stuff), layers:Dead leaves, A horizon- humus layer, B horizon- subsoil, Bedrock, Parent material., Podzols are found in forests with deciduous trees., chernozems are thick grassland areas that cover large areas of the prairies.

flora is plant life

fauna is animal life.

Plate tectonics

in 1915, Alfred Weigner came up with continental drift. He noticed how the earth looked like a big puzzle., Evidence: Geologic fit Fossil evidence Geologic match, In 1960's J. Tuzo Wilson came up with Plate tectonics. This is where the Earth is on plates that are moving away from each other slowly., Earthquakes and ocean ridges occur when two plates and passing one another. They scrape or they overlap causing damage., You get volcanoes when the plates are moving away and mountains when they move together.


Th Earth is divided into eras.

4 geologic eras, Pre Cambrian era, oldest and longest era. The Canadian shield was being formed. Mostly igneous rock being found. Shield worn down by erosion and first single cell organisms., Paleozoic, Age of the invertebrates. Plates begin to collide. The Appalachian mountains are forming. 375 million years long., Mesozoic, Age of the reptiles. Birds and mammals appear. Western cordillera forming., Cenozoic, Age of the hominids( humans) Most of Canada covered in glaciers. Formed most of Canada today.


Bodies of Water, Water moderates temperature, Lake effect snow

Latitude (temperature), further from the equator, cooler the temperature., albedo

Ocean current, water does not change temperature as quickly as air does.The water temperature will have an affect on the areas surrounding them., currents travelling to equator are are cooler and currents travelling away from equator are warm.

Relief/ Landforms, moist air forced up a mountain can result in precipitation., on the other side there's dry air.

Wind/Air masses, air moves in large volumes called air masses, temperature and moisture of air masses depend on their origination., JET STREAM

Elevation/ Altitude, Air mass edges are called fronts, air altitude increases temperature decreases.

Macro spheres

Natural systems use the macro spheres to survive.

hydrosphere, All of the Earth's water in it's solid, liquid and gas forms

biosphere, The area inside the earth where life can exist

lithosphere, The earth's outer layer of rock

atmosphere, All of the earth's gases.


When convection pushes the crust together you get mountains. (it compresses and folds)

When convection pulls the crust apart it forms cracks. (valleys). A fault appears causing earthquakes., When two faults appear at the same time, it causes a rift valley., There is a rift valley between Ottawa and the New York state.

Erosion is the wearing down of something. Wind, water ice and gravity are factors of erosion., the debris is moved somewhere else by nature. (desposition), a mound of debris in between two glaciers is called a moraine. ( there is one in Oakville), glaciers are overgrown land icebergs. They grow shrink and move., When they move they scrape the land of vegetation, minerals, rocks, soil and deposit it somewhere else.


three types of rocks, igrneous, pumice, Intrusive, this is when the rock cools inside the earth., extrusive, this is when the rock cools outside of the Earth., made from magma inside t he Earth and then cooled inside or outside of the earth., metamorphic, slate, It is a mixture of both rocks;hence the name metamorphic., sedimentary, sandstone, made from sediments under the sea, Are all formed in neverending cycle. It could be a web because you can go from one point to another easily.

Climate vs weather

Without being able to predict climate we will die.

what is weather/, weather is what is happening at a specific time.

what is climate?, climate is the patterns that are watched over along period of time (100 years)., climate is regular while weather can be unpredictable.

factors that affect both: temperature and precipitation., frontal precipitation., when 2 fronts meet. The warm front is pushed over the cold front. As air rises and cools its condenses into water droplets. Eventually precipitation occurs., orographic precipitation., wind, water vapour, rises, cools, condenses, clouds form, rain falls, yay orographic!, convectional precipitation., As the earth's surface is warmed, warm air rises, cools and causes condensation. Eventually heavy down occurs. Happens in continental areas.


a biome is a large region on Earth, Thee boreal is the largest biome in the world., Deciduous trees- 63% of Canadian forests, coniferous trees- 22%, mixed- the rest

Canada's Cultural Diversity


cloropleth mapping can show different population densities around the world.

population is the number of people who live in a given area at a given time., population is dynamic

population density, this is the meausre of the number of people who live in a standardized area., Canada's population density is 3.1 people per km2.

four factors, birth rate, death rate, immigration, emigration, birth rate the amount of babies born in a population. Usually written in a rate per 1000 people., death rate is the amount of people who die in a population. It is usually written as a rate per 1000 people., immigration is when people move from one country to another., Emigration is when people move out of a country to another., calculating natural increase: birth rate- death rate

cloropleth mapping.

using colour shades to represent an amount of something using 3-6 different classes., can only use one colour (moncromatic)


Ecumene: where the population lives. This is the Windsor- Quebec city corridor

different types of settlements., hamlet, village, town, city, megacity, CMA, megatopolis...

census: stats Canada., demography is the study of population trends., rates can be shown as a percentage

age-sex pyramids

shows population patterns., Divides the population by age and by gender, males on the left, females on the right

dependency load

15 and under and 65 and over, they take up appropriately 1/3 of Canada's population., BABY BOOMERS!!, from 1945-1960, more babies than expected were born., this cold be because the war was over, soldiers came home to a safe environment.

flow maps

uses arrows and colours to show importance., the bigger the symbol,the more important it is., the fatter the arrow, the more important it is.


people immigrate fro many reasons, push + pull factors, Some factors are: war, education, prosecution, refuge etc..., push factors are what make you want to leave a country, pull factors are what attract you to another country

how to get into Canada:, if you have a health issue or a criminal record, there's a very slim to none chance of getting in., different classes to apply into:, skilled workers class, people with education and work experience that can help them find a job and help the economy, investors, people who are going to put money to Canada., Provincial nominees, provinces can nominate someone who has applied to work in a specific field in their province., family, You can bring siblings, parents, grandparents, children, common-law partners, spouses, nephews, nieces and grandchildren., refugee, you can only apply under this class if you have proof that you are not safe in your country., currently you need a minimum of 67 of the 100 points to get inon the test., education is the highest category on the test.

multiculturalism... a myth?

a policy that encourages cultural diversity and respect, there are ethnic enclaves in Canada (Greek Town)

tossed salad vs. melting pot, assimilation

cultural imprints

The First Nations people have their own cultural imprints in Canada. the name Canada = Kanatabreaking up the land is a form of cultural imprints

social imprints, the ways that people behave, language, religion, family traditions, clothing, food, sports

physical imprints, The ways people affect their surroundings, Architectures, speciality shops, restaurants.

urban settlements

breaking up the land, "Long lot" system, section system, line+ concessions system

over 90% of Canadians live in urban areas., there are transportation cities, manufacturing cities, resource cities, service cities

many ways to use the land, residential, housing, Institutional + public buildings, schools, libraries, transportation, roads, highways, parking lots, Open space, parks, Industrial, stores, factories, commercial landuse; meant for buying and selling goods only, Low order, middle order, high order types of stores

big cities

Lots of immigrants are attracted tot he bright lights of Canadian cities

Alienation, feeling alone among thousands of people

poverty, cost of living is higher

crime, more people+ more crime

physical blight, functional blight, areas that cannot be used for their original purpose, frictional blight, this is when there is conflicting landuse, deterioration of landscape.

Urban fringe, mixed land use

Indigenous people

also known as first nations, often tried to be destroyed for the land by Europeans, colonize, kill, residential schools, us vs. them

People on the land


four types of industries, Primary, agriculture, secondary, manufacturing, tertiary, most people work in this industry; service, researching, researching

refers to particular types of labour that are done

entrepreneurs are people who run their own businesses

education has nothing to do with the levels of industry


this is important for Canadian life, unemployment happens for many reasons; laziness is very uncommon, under employed, single mothers, visible minorities and low education are mos likely to be umemployed, employment is affected by the cost of operating a business, often relocate to lower costs

working poor; those who work, but cannot afford basic needs

volunteering; people who work for free

single industry towns


many companies are lured by Canadaès resources, resources are the base of materials

a resource is anything found in nature that is of value, non renewable resources, operate in geologic time, renewable resources, operate in human time, flow resources, operate in the moment fouund

capitalist vs. environmentalist, money vs. the earth, environmentalist: we are the world, capitalist: money$$$$


Pacific, Atlantic, freshwater, The Atlantic fishery collapsed because of overfishing., find cod,herring there., destructive fishing practices, lots of fish because of the shallow waters, pacific fisheries fear that they will collapse like the Atlantic, fish found: salmon!!, salmon are caught on their migration routes, Freshwater fisheries are around the great lakes area, Lake Erie the most profitable lake; shallow waters, sport fishing= $$$, Effluent, three groups fighting for control of fisheries: Commercial, sport, Native


if you ate today, thank a farmer, 1 in 5 jobs are related to agriculture, farming is based off of chance, growing season is above 5*C, extensive and intensive farming, intensive farming; small land, high value perishable's foods with more workers and few equipment, degradation of farmland: erosion, overuse, extensive farming is large land, non perishable foods with lots of equipment

in the 1880s 80% of Canadians were farmers, now less than 3%

Niagara fruitbelt


10% of worlds forests in Canada, almost 1/2 of Canada is forests, two basic types of wood; softwood and hardwood, softwood lumber makes pulp and paper, hardwood lumber makes planks and lumber, big tree become lumber and small trees make pulp and paper

the industry creates a lot of money ($22 billion), high value of wood caused clear cutting practices, over consumption threatens the forestry industry at every level., RECYCLING!!


everything in our lives has to do with mining, mining produces the high multiplier effect; where the more you process it, the higher value there is.

a mineral is a naturally occurring pure chemical compound( including elements), four types, industrial minerals; diamonds, metallic minerals; gold, structural minerals; gravol, fuel minerals; coal

types of mining, open pit mining; for minerals near the edge then go lower in the Earth, strip mining; for minerals close to the surface of the Earth, underground mining; for minerals further in the earth; most dangerous


Canada is one of the top energy users in the world, non renewable and renewable resources., Canada has fossil fuels, hydrocarbons, hydro electricity and nuclear, hydroelectric energy needs a slope and water, Ontario is the largest user of Nuclear energy in Canada., it is cheap, clean energy., coal used to be popular, but it causes too much pollution, most of our coal comes from Alberta, OIL!!! it is found underwater too, but very difficult to extract also in the North, too expensive to bother...for now, Tar sands are mucky areas of sand mixed with oil.

greenhouse gases trap heat to the Earth., global warming; climate change, carbon- oxygen cycle

Natural gas usually found above oil, but it very temperamental; use with caution, good for home heating, used in power plants to generate electricity

carbon footprint, Average Canadian footprint is 8 hectares, figure out how much space we need to live our lives


transportation of goods that are not available in different areas., highway 401 is the largest highway in North America, Cars are the most popular form of transportation for Canadians

four major waterway; Hudson bay, great lakes, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean.

International Interconnections

Canada: international team player

Canada is important internationally, seen as compassionate and caring

commonwealth: former British colonies, 25% of world's population, south Africa, Canada, India, family connections

United Nations

formed after WWII there are 192 countries, conflict resolution, peacekeeping, diplomacy

other organizations: UNESCO, UNICEF,, NATO (north Atlantic Treaty Association), World Bank, NGO's

Imports/ Exports

Trade is all about exchanging goods and services, Importing is all about bringing in goods from foreign places; exporting is giving goods to foreign places

Importing gives use things we cannot grow or manufacture in Canada; exporting gives us $$$, Canada exports raw materials, auto mobiles, airplanes, nuclear products, 80% of our exports are to USA Trade surplus

fair trade vs. Protectionism, NAFTA( North American Free Trade Act) We have free trade with Mexico and USA, Tariff, Quota, Subsidy, all forms of protectionism

GDP ( gross Domestic Product) measures a country's worth., Canada's GDP was 1.57 trillion, some companies make more than most countries' GDP's they have more power, JP Morgan Chase- Bank ( #1 company in the world)


the world is a global village and everyone is connected, 6th degree of separation ( we are related by 6 people), cultural awareness vs. cultural exploitation

Quality of Life

world heritage sites, one in Quebec city, GDP shows standard of living, developed, developing, industrialized, UNESCO ( United Nations Educational, Scientific and cultural Organization)

What's a Canadian?

does Canada have culture or are we American wannabe's?, Do stereotypes define us?

International policies

First Aid: Helping developing countries who need support (myth in sorts), Donated 0.285 of its GDP

Peace Keeping: Lester B. Pearson, A force to avoid conflict, Syria conflict

Human Rights: Fighting for the rights of people, Lloyd Axelworthy