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Cultural Anthropology by Mind Map: Cultural Anthropology

1. Chapter 2: Culture

1.1. Learned and Taught : culture can be learned (enculturation) and taught in a formal or informal situation

1.1.1. Formal : cultural institutions like schools, medical systems, media, police/military, and religious institutions

1.1.2. Informal : unconscious learning and teaching through family, friends, and social events (like a birthday party)

1.2. Race and Ethnicity : Race is classified "as a flawed system of classification, created, and re-created over time, that uses physical characteristics (such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, and eye color) to divide the human population..." (Guest 197)

1.2.1. Race is a social construct yet the US classifies 6 different racial categories that are strict,

1.2.2. In the US, ethnicity mainly pertains to Hispanic or Latino groups and is irrelevant to race. (In the end, you must choose a race to identify with.

1.3. Franz Boas

1.3.1. He rejected the idea of unilineal cultural evolution : all cultures naturally evolve through the same sequence of stages Savagery (early) → barbarism (middle) → civilization (later states)

1.3.2. Boas presented historical particularism, which conceptualizes the uniqueness of the development of cultures due to their different histories

1.4. Nature vs Nurture : the idea that people learn and develop based on their environment and/or genetics

1.4.1. Nature entitles the determination of gender differences, racial categories, ethnic divisions, and sexuality (debatable) All things biological

1.4.2. Nurture involves culture, values, and experiences that shape a person's behavior

2. Chapter 5: Human Origins

2.1. Dating : Scientists use this process to determine how old a fossil or rock is.

2.1.1. Relative Dating : is based on material found near the object getting dated. This could be a stone, artifact, or any other fossilized object

2.1.2. Absolute Dating : uses more precise tools. For example, using Carbon-14's half life, carbon dating has become popular in dating how long ago the bodies of the fossils existed.

2.2. Evolution : (Darwinism) every living thing is representative of multiple biological adaptations over thousands on generations. This happens in response to changes in a natural environment

2.2.1. Natural Selection : is the process by which organisms with features that are adaptable to the environment survive and reproduce and increase frequency (like the blue dodo bird) Light/nonmelanic (cc) vs dark/melanic (Cc or CC) moths in Britain during the Industrial Revolution

2.2.2. Positive Selection : process in which advantageous genetics variants quickly increase in frequency in a population (Galapagos finches)

2.3. Genetics : affected the evolution process through mutations in human DNA, gene flow, and genetic drifts

2.3.1. Gene Flow : the movement of genetic material within a population and among diverse populations (especially once Columbus arrived in 1492)

2.3.2. Genetic Drift "is more rapid in smaller, more isolated populations as a small number of changes can have a statistically more significant influence." (Guest 168) random and unpredictable changes in DNA

2.4. Human Ancestors : humanity has evolved from varies species of hominid; from the australopithecus, homo habilis, homo erectus, homo florensiensis, neantertals to the now existing homo sapiens

2.4.1. Bipedalism : the ability to habitually walk on two legs; ancestors spent a lot of time on the ground

2.4.2. Skulls : over time, as humanity gained more resources, skulls evolved to fit new diets and a larger brain

3. Chapter 1: Anthropology in the Global Age

3.1. Cultural Anthropology : is field of anthropology that focuses on people's communities, behaviors, beliefs, and institutions and its relation to how people live, work, and interact with each other

3.1.1. Imperialism : was an opportunity for European countries to come in contact with a variety of cultures during the colonial period and Age of Exploration

3.1.2. Franz Boas : was the founder of American Anthropology. He studied and worked against racial categorization, focusing on transitioning European immigrant children in the US to "New World" values

3.1.3. Audrey Richards developed the anthropological research standards while researching the Bemba society in Zambia. There, she learned about this society's nutritional habits and rites of passage among other concepts

3.2. "Cultural Relativism calls for the suspension of judgement while attempting to understand a group's beliefs and practices within their own cultural context." (Guest 43)

3.2.1. Opposes the idea of ethnocentrism which was the controversial idea that one's culture was above other cultures

3.2.2. Cultural relativism is an opportunity to be tolerant towards other cultures unlike our own

3.3. Ethnographic Fieldwork : is a primary research strategy in cultural anthro that involves living within the community one is researching over an extended period to understand that community's life better

3.3.1. Social scientists focus on what society needs vs anthropologists let society speak

3.3.2. Participant Observation : is a strategy involving both participation in and observation of the daily life of the studied people

3.4. Lenses used in Anthropology

3.4.1. Four-Field Approach : is a lens anthropologists use that involves physical anthro, archeology, linguistic anthro, and cultural anthro to study humanity

3.4.2. Holism : is similar to the four-field approach in regards to learning about humanity as a whole; includes culture, biology, history, and language

4. Chapter 4: Language

4.1. Origins of Language: anthropologists and primatologists have researched communication among apes, but mainly attribute it to humans.

4.1.1. Language is "a system of communication that uses symbols―like words, sounds, and gestures―organized according to certain rules, to convey any kind of information (Guest 113).

4.1.2. Apes lack the physical apparatus (vocal cords, tongue, and lips), whereas humans have the apparatus to form words.

4.1.3. Humans gain the (fluent and coherent) linguistic ability around age 2-3, imitating their trainers (parents, guardians, etc). Apes are said to have challenged this idea of imitation.

4.2. Descriptive Linguistics : the study of the sounds, symbols, and gestures of a language, and their combination into forms that communicate meaning.

4.2.1. Phonemes : the smallest units of sound that can make a difference in meaning Phonology : the study of what sounds exists and their importance to a language

4.2.2. Rules of sound in terms of morphemes, morphology, and syntax Morphemes : the smallest units of sound that carry meaning of their own Morphology : the study of patterns and rules oh how sounds combine to make morphemes Syntax : specific patterns and rules for constructing phrases and sentences

4.3. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis : the idea that different languages create different ways of thinking (Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf)

4.3.1. Whorf made linguistic research on Hopi society : it is dfferent from English; there is no no separate verb tense for past, present, and future; the past and present are one lived reality; and the future is hypothetical

4.3.2. Versus Ferdinand de Saussure, Claude Levi-Strauss, and Noam Chomsky's theory of human language acquisition Human brain is hardwired for basic framework Universal grammar : a similar structure in all languages Humans share a similar language ability

4.4. Language and Gender : men and women speak differently

4.4.1. Difference model : models the communication between men and women is cross-cultural communication Girls hangout indoors in small groups Boys play outside in large competitive groups

4.4.2. Dominance model : West, Lakoff, Holmes, and Cameron describe language and gender superiority Men adopt a linguistic strategies of dominance through commands, explanations, contradictions, criticisms, challenges, and accusations Woman adopt a linguistic strategy through submission, request, agreeance, support, accommodation, acceptance, and apologies

5. Chapter 8: Gender

5.1. Sex vs Gender : sex is the observable physical difference between male and female, and gender is expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to people

5.1.1. Biology determines 3 factors for sex: genitalia, gonads, & sex chromosomes

5.1.2. Sexual dimorphism : the phenotypic differences between males and females of the same species (hair distribution, weight, height, strength, breast size, voice)

5.2. Cultural Construction of Gender : way humans learn to behave and recognize what is a man or woman

5.2.1. Differences between how male & female children are treated : gender appropriate names, haircuts, clothing, jewelry, colors, spoken to in gender appropriate language/tones

5.2.2. Gender becomes a powerful invisible framework : gendered dance, playing, dating, mating, parenting, loving etc. (Rubin 1975; Lorber 1994; Bonvillain 2007; Brettel and Sargent 2009) Sports: males get privilege (addn'l coaching, training, basketball, soccer, lacrosse, football, wrestling); whereas females are essentially coddled (gymnastics, figure skating, cheerleading)

5.3. Gender Performance is "the way gender identity is expressed through action" (Guest 282)

5.3.1. Masculine : aggressive, physical, tough, competitive, sports oriented, testosterone driven, strong, unemotional

5.3.2. Feminine : gentle, kind, loving, nurturing, smart, persuasive, talkative, enticing, emotional

5.4. Gender and Power : complex, but there is generally more male dominance (Women = Nature; Man = Culture)

5.4.1. Gender stratification : unequal distribution of power and access to a group’s resources, opp., rights, and privileges based on gender

5.4.2. Gender stereotypes : preconceived notion about the attributes of, differences between, and proper roles for men and women in a culture

5.4.3. Gender ideology : a set of cultural ideas, usually stereotypical, about the essential character of different gender that functions to promote and justify gender stratification

6. Chapter 9: Sexuality

6.1. Human Sexuality is "the complex range of desires, beliefs, and behaviors that are related to erotic physical contact, intimacy, and pleasure" (Guest 314)

6.1.1. Heterosexuality : attraction to and sexual relations between individuals of the opposite sex

6.1.2. Homosexuality : attraction to and sexual relations between individuals of the same sex

6.1.3. Bisexuality : attraction to and sexual relation with members of both sexes

6.1.4. Asexuality : a lack of erotic attraction to others

6.2. Globally, sexuality can be as flexible and inflexible in different countries and regions

6.2.1. Same-gender “Mati work” in Suriname: women who who form intimate spiritual, emotional, and sexual relationships with other women 3 out of 4 women engage “mati work” live in the same household or separately, share child rearing, have variations of sexual relations with men and women, male relationships for child rearing, and prefer visiting relationships with males

6.2.2. Machismo and sexuality in Nicaragua : Roger Lancaster researched machismo in 1980’s in Managua and learned that manhood is constantly threatened (Constant need to perform machismo) In a same sex relationship : a cochon is the queer, faggot, gay and passive receiver; and a machista → sexual conquest of whoever available and penetrator (power and sexuality intersect)

6.3. Sexuality and relations of power : Michel Foucault (1978) stated sexuality as “an especially dense transfer point for relations of power”

6.3.1. Sexuality like the categories of race, class, ethnicity, and gender is a focal point to negotiate power

6.3.2. Sexual violence : violence perpetuated through sexually related physical assaults such as rape (especially in college campuses)

6.4. Lesbian and gay marriages

6.4.1. Rituals of Resistance and Acceptance: resisting federal recognition, but cceptance and conformity to traditions of wider society still exists

6.4.2. Obergefell v. Hodges : Legalization of same sex marriage; Demonstrates fluidity and malleability of sexuality

7. Chapter 15: Religion

7.1. Edward Tylor (1871) believed that cultures initial concepts on the supernatural related to death and dreaming

7.1.1. The dream world is a place where some essence travels to; in death, the essence leaves the body

7.1.2. Belief in a soul : travels when we're dreaming and goes ~somewhere~ after death

7.2. Religion is "a set of beliefs based on a unique vision of how the world ought to be, often revealed through insights into a supernatural power and lived out in a community" (Guest 573)

7.2.1. Ritual activities that reinforces, recall, instill, and explore collective beliefs like weekly mass, baptism, bar/bat mitzvah , weddings, funerals, pilgrimages

7.2.2. Symbols used in religious rituals, that represent key aspects of the religion for its followers Anthropologists use certain tools or concepts to understand religion Sacred : anything that is considered holy Profane : anything that is considered not holy Ritual : an act or series of act regularly repeated over years or generations that embody the beliefs of a group of people and create a sense of continuity and belonging

7.2.3. Specialists who assist the average believer to bridge everyday life experiences and the religion’s ideals and supernatural aspects like priests, imams, shamans, gurus, medicine men and women

7.3. Rites of Passage : a category of ritual that enacts a change of status from one life stage to another either for an individual or a group

7.3.1. 1) separation of existing identity

7.3.2. 2) phase of transition or liminality

7.3.3. 3) incorporation/reincorporation with new identity