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Gasses by Mind Map: Gasses
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Gasses

Nitrogen

Properties

Very inert (unreactive) gas

Uses

Making ammonia in Haber.

Creates inert atmosphere in food packaging to protect it oxidation of food. Preserves it for a long time

How to prepare it in Lab?

Heat ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide together.

The gas is then passed through solid calcium oxide to dry it.

The gas is collected by upward delivery (lighter than air).

Equation of reaction, Word, Ammonium chloride(aq)+Calcium hydroxide(aq)= Ammonia(g)+Water(g)+Calcium chloride (aq), Symbol, 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 = 2NH3 +2H2O + CaCl2

Test for Nitrogen/Ammonia, Red litmus paper turns blue when gas passes through

Ammonia

Properties, Colourless alkaline gas. Less dense than air., Very soluable in water

Solubility, Dissociates (split) water into 2 ions., The ions are NH4+ and OH-, Ammonia(g) +water(l)=Ammonium Ion(aq) +hydroxide ion (aq)

Salts, These salts are created to act as fertilisers, Ammonia solution (aq) + dilute sulphuric acid(aq)= Ammonium sulphate(aq)

Test, Add dilute sodium hydroxide. Heat gently. Gas given off. If litmus paper turns blue, there is an ammonium ion present.

Hydrogen

Dilute Acids on Metals

metal + acid = hydrogen + a salt, Salts named from Acid

Order of Reactivity, Magnesium, Aluminium, Zinc, Iron

Preparation in Lab

Dilute Hydrochloric Acid + Zinc, Granulated Zinc, HCl (aq), React both together and collect H2 in a test tube up-side down in a water bath, H2 is lighter than Air

Combustion 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) = 2H2O (l)

Tests with lighted splint, H2 burns in O2, Makes a 'pop' sound

Chemical Test for H20

H20 turns CuSO4, a white powder, blue, Symbol Equation, CuSO4 (s) + 5H20 (l) = CuSO4.5H20 (s)

H20 crystallisation is added

Makes blue crystals

Physical Test to show if H20 is PURE

Test boiling point, 100 degree Celcius

H2 + Cl2

All halogens + hydrogen = hydrogen halides, When H2, reacts with Cl2 while heating - sunlight/ultraviolet light, there can be an explosion, H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) = 2HCl (g)

Sulphur

Sulphites + Dilute Acid

SO2 dissolves in H20 = H2S03

Salts of H2S03 = sulphites

Sulphites + Dilute acid = Sulphur dioxide, Uses of SO2, Sulphuric Acid, Preservatives, Wine Making, Reducing agent

Example, Word Equation, Potassium Sulphite + Nitric acid = Sulphur dioxide + Potassium Nitrite + Water, Symbol Equation, K2SO3 (s) +2HNO3 (aq) = SO2 (g) + 2KNO3 + H20 (l)

Test for Sulphites, Dilute HCl and Barium Chloride = white precipitate

Allotropes

3 MAIN forms, Rhombic, Properties, Ring of 8 atoms, Rhombus shaped, Monoclinic, Properties, Heated up and cooled, Long needle-shaped crystals, Change to Rhombic, Plastic, Properties, Heated until melts, Poured in cold water, Cooled suddenly - crystals cannot form, Flexible brown filament, Left for days - Rhombic form

2/3 of Sulphur in atmosphere comes from sulphurous gases emitted by volcanoes

Oxides

Oxygen

Industrial extraction of oxygen, Air is cooled to -80 degrees Celsius to solidify and then remove carbon dioxide and water, Air is cooled and compressed, Allowed to expand quickly, which cools it down further, Air is now -200 degrees Celsius. Air is now liquefied., Liquid air is then fractionally distilled because the gasses have different boiling points., Oxygen Boiling Point:-183 degrees Celsius, Nitrogen Boiling Point:-196 degrees Celsius.

Reactions of oxygen in air., Basic Oxides, Magnesium(s) + Oxygen(g)=Magnesium oxide(s), Mg(s)+O2(g)=2MgO(s), When they react with water they form alkaline solutions, Acidic Oxides, Sulphur(s) + Oxygen(g)=Sulphur dioxide(g), S(s)+O2(g)=SO2(g), When they react with water they form acidic solutions

Determining the percentage by volume of oxygen in air, Contains 100cm3 of air., Gas is continually passed from one syringe to the other and over the copper in the silica tube, Amount of air decreases because the copper reacts with the oxygen., We know that 21cm3 of oxygen was used and 79cm3 was left.

Carbon Dioxide

Uses, Fizz Drinks, Added under Pressure, Dissolve in liquid, Fire Extinguishers, Denser than Air, Settle around the fire and keeps O2 out

Rusting of Iron

Corrode, Broken Down chemically + Decay, Rusting, Iron + Water + Oxygen = Rusting

Sulphur dioxide and combustion

Sulphur burnt in Oxygen

Reacts with water to make sulphurous acid, SO2 + H20 = H2S03

Atmosphere, SO2 reacts with O2, Symbol Equation, Sulphur Dioxide + Oxygen + Water = Sulphuric Acid + Water, Word Equation, 2S02 (g) + O2 (g) + 2H2O (l) = H2SO4 (aq) + H20 (l)