Eastern Approaches to a Unified Reality

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Eastern Approaches to a Unified Reality by Mind Map: Eastern Approaches to a Unified Reality

1. Buddhism

1.1. What is the purpose of life?

1.1.1. To become enlightened as to the nature and oneness of the universe

1.1.2. The Four Noble Truths (foundation for belief) 1. All of life is marked by suffering 2. Suffering is caused by desire and attachment 3. Suffering can be stopped 4. The way to end suffering is to follow the Noble Eightfold Path

1.1.3. The Noble Eightfold Path (how to escape suffering) 1. Right knowledge 2. Right intention 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right liveliehood 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration

1.2. Relationship between mind & matter

1.2.1. Buddhist dualism States of consciousness (nonphysical) Buddhist atoms (nonphysical) Building blocks that make up reality; unstructured points of energy

1.3. What is the self?

1.3.1. Five skandhas 1. Form Our physical form 2. Sensation Our emotional & physical feelings, and our senses 3. Perception Thinking: conceptualization, cognition, reasoning 4. Mental Formations Habits, prejudices, faith, attention, pride, desire, causes & effects of karma, etc. 5. Consciousness Awareness of or sensitivity to an object

1.3.2. Not-self The individual self is a by-product of the skandhas

1.4. Nature of ultimate reality

1.4.1. Bodhi (enlightenment; awakening) Knowledge into the causal mechanism by which beings incarnate into material form and experience suffering

1.4.2. Three Marks of Existence Annica (impermanence) All things and experiences are inconstant, unsteady, and impermanent Dukkha (suffering) All of life is marked by suffering Anatta (not-self) All things perceived by the senses are not really "I" or "mine", and for this reason one should not cling to them

1.5. Key figures

1.5.1. Siddhartha Gauthama The founder of Buddhism; the Buddha

1.5.2. Shariputra and Maudgalyayana Chief male disciples of the Buddha

1.5.3. Bodhidharma Brought Buddhism to China

1.5.4. Buddhaghosa Definitive interpreter of their doctrine

1.6. What is the origin of the world/life? (Any dieties?)

1.6.1. Denies that the universe had a start by the act of a creator deity

1.6.2. Questions on the origin of the world are worthless

1.7. Texts

1.7.1. Visuddhimagga A comprehensive manual condensing the theoretical and practical teaching of the Buddha Written by Buddhaghosa

1.7.2. Tripiṭaka Describes Buddhist sects' various canons of scriptures

1.7.3. Dhammapada a Buddhist scripture ascribed to the Buddha

1.7.4. Mahayana sutras Original teachings of the Buddha

1.8. Is there an afterlife?

1.8.1. Saṃsāra Repeating cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth

1.9. Karma

1.9.1. The actions which spring from the intention of an unenlightened being

1.10. Nirvāna

1.10.1. the perfect peace of the state of mind that is free from kleshas

1.11. Kleshas

1.11.1. mental states that cloud the mind and manifest in unwholesome actions (eg. anger, jealousy, depression, anxiety, desire, fear)

2. Confucianism

2.1. What is the purpose of life?

2.1.1. To fulfill one's role in society, by showing honesty, politeness, filial piety, loyalty, humaneness, benevolence, etc.

2.2. Relationship between mind and matter

2.2.1. Monism

2.3. What is the self?

2.3.1. An individual's identity is defined by membership in the reference group to which he/she belongs

2.4. Nature of ultimate reality

2.4.1. Experienced through cognitive deconstruction

2.5. Key figures

2.5.1. Confucius Founder of Confucianism Teacher, editor, politician, philosopher

2.5.2. Mencius Travelled China for forty years to offer advice to rulers for reform Interpreter of Confucianism

2.5.3. Zhuangzi Co-author of the Hundred Schools of Thought

2.6. What is the origin of the world/life? (Any dieties?)

2.6.1. Tao; no gods

2.7. Texts

2.7.1. Hundred Schools of Thought Confucian thoughts and ideas

2.7.2. Great Learning The teachings of Confucius, followed by ten commentary chapters

2.7.3. Four Books and Five Classics Authoritative books of Confucianism

2.8. Is there an afterlife?

2.8.1. Afterlife is beyond human comprehension;

2.8.2. Humans should live and behave in such a way as to promote ideal social relations, rather than to act based on the expectations of rewards or punishments after death

2.9. Virtues

2.9.1. Ren The good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic (i.e., unselfish)

2.9.2. Li Etiquette (rules of proper behaviour)

2.9.3. Filial piety (considered the greatest of virtues) Child respects father

2.9.4. Loyalty Loyalty of the rule to the ruler

2.9.5. Respect Having respect in relationships (with friends, schoolmates, one's spouse, elderly, etc.) results in social harmony

2.9.6. Gentleman All people are encouraged to strive for the ideal of a "gentleman" or "perfect man" "Perfect Man": one who combines the qualities of saint, scholar, and gentleman

3. Hinduism

3.1. What is the purpose of life?

3.1.1. Dharma Pay the five debts 1. Debt to the gods for their blessings; paid by rituals and offerings 2. Debt to parents and teachers; paid by supporting them, having children of one's own and passing along knowledge 3. Debt to guests; repaid by treating them as if they were gods visiting one's home. 4. Debt to other human beings; repaid by treating them with respect. 5. Debt to all other living beings; repaid by offering good will, food or any other help that is appropriate.

3.1.2. Artha Prosperity or success in worldy pursuits

3.1.3. Kama Pleasure

3.1.4. Moksha Liberation from rebirth, enlightenment, Self-realization, or union with God

3.2. Relationship between mind and matter

3.2.1. Monism

3.3. What is the self?

3.3.1. One's true self is identical with the transcendent self Brahman Brahman: the one supreme, universal Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe

3.4. Nature of ultimate reality

3.4.1. Brahman

3.5. Key figures

3.5.1. Krishna Non-creator god

3.5.2. Vyasa Author

3.6. What is the origin of the world/life? (Any dieities?)

3.6.1. Pantheism

3.7. Texts

3.7.1. Vedas a collection of hymns and formulas to be sung/recited

3.7.2. Upanishads Collection of philosophical texts which form the theoretical basis for the Hindu religion

3.7.3. Mahabharata and Ramayana The two major Sanskrit (a historical Indo-Aryan language) epics of ancient India

3.8. Is there an afterlife?

3.8.1. Saṃsāra Repeating cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth

4. Taoism

4.1. What is the purpose of life?

4.1.1. To return to the primordial (earliest or original stage or state) or to rejoin with the Oneness of the Universe by way of self-correction and self realization

4.2. Relationship between mind & matter

4.2.1. Dualism The universe is seemingly equally divided into two opposing but equal forces

4.3. What is the self?

4.3.1. Wu Wei (beings that are wholly in harmony with the Tao behave in a completely natural, uncontrived way

4.4. Nature of ultimate reality

4.4.1. Tao (some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the universe balanced and ordered

4.4.2. Yin and yang Polar opposites or seemingly contrary forces are interconnected and interdependent in the natural world (WRONG, not polar opposites) Yin: dim, passive and feminine energy Yang: the compliment of bright, active and masculine energy

4.5. Key figures

4.5.1. Laozi (AKA Lao Tzu) Founder of Taoism Author of Tao Te Ching

4.5.2. Zhuangzi Co-founder of Taoism Memetication FTFM

4.6. What is the origin of the world/life? (Any dieties?)

4.6.1. Tao; no gods

4.7. Texts

4.7.1. Tao Te Ching Discusses all about Taoism

4.8. Is there an afterlife?

4.8.1. Death is merely a transformation from being to non-being (no afterlife)

4.9. Three Treasures (virtues)

4.9.1. 1. Compassion

4.9.2. 2. Moderation

4.9.3. 3. Humility