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1. 2- Can’t/couldn’t have + past participle

1.1. Certainty that something didn’t happen She can’t/ couldn’t have gone to work, as she is on holiday

2. Should/Had better

2.1. Should/Had better

2.1.1. Should is used to say what we think should be done, to give advice or an opinion. Had better is the colloquial form to express the same idea Affirmative: subject+ had better + a verb in the base form: We had better rush if we don’t want to miss the speech Negative:subject+ had better+ note+ a verb in the base form: You’d better not take the car if it snows Interrogative: had better is not normally used in the question form

2.2. Should/Had better

2.2.1. Note that had better is different from should because we can use it to warn someone that something bad could happen if they don’t do what we are telling them to do. You’d better mind your step or you will fall You’d better not play music so loud if you don’t want the neighbours to complaint


3.1. 7- Need to/ needn't

3.1.1. Need to:Obligation, Necessity You need to enter the password to log in It can be used in any tense Needn’t:Indicates lack of obligation and necessity. He needn’t bring all his books with him

3.2. 6- Should

3.2.1. Advice or suggestion: Your hair is too long. You should get a haircut Situation likely in the present: Mary should be at thome now. Give her a call. Likely in the future (prediction): They should win tonight, the’re a better team Should + have+ past participle: The subject did not fulfill their obligation in the past or did not act responsibly: You should have given your boss the report yesterday when asked for it. Should + be+ verb-ing: This subject is not fulfilling their obligation now or is not acting sensibly: You should be wearing your seatbelt.

3.3. 5- May/Might

3.3.1. Possibility: It might rain later so take an umbrella Give permission: You may have another cookie if you like Ask for permision: May I borrow your pen please? Express wishes: May the New Year bring you happiness Speculate about past actions: She is late. She may have missed her plane

3.4. 4- Could

3.4.1. General ability in the past: I could play the piano when I was younger Ask for permission (more polite): Could I use your bathroom please? To request something (more polite): Could you pass me the salt please? Possibility in the past (could + have+ past participle): What? You could have broken your leg Suggestion: We could go to movies if you like Conditional of can: If we had some oranges I could make you some fresh juice

3.5. 1- Can

3.5.1. General ability: I can swim Ask for permission: Can I go to the bathroom? To request something: Can you help me? Possibility: It can be very cold here at night Offer to help someone: Can I carry your bags for you? Cannot : Can’t : not allowed: You can’t go to the party

3.6. 2- Be able to

3.6.1. Ability: Carol is able to ride horses Posibility: Will they be able to come around? Unlike can, be able to can be conjugated and used in different tenses

3.7. 3- Can't

3.7.1. Inability: We can’t face this problem alone Prohibition: You can’t speak on the phone here Deduction, disbelief: It can’t be Sarah. She is much taller than that girl

3.8. Should VS Ought to

3.8.1. Should can be replaced by ought to without a change in meaning You ought to study more: You should study more Ought to is rare in negative and interrogative

3.9. 8- Must

3.9.1. Obligation: You must wear a seatbelt when you drive Deduction: Look at all that snow. It must be cold outside. Emphasize necessity: Plants must have light and water to grow. Strong recommendation: We must get together for dinner soon. Mustn’t: Prohibition: You mustn’t use your phone while driving

3.10. 9- Must VS Have to

3.10.1. Must: Expresses obligation impossed by the speaker: Teacher: You must complet this essay by Friday Have to: External obligations: Students: We have to complete this essay by Friday. It is more common to use Have To instead of Must in questions: Does he have to do a test? We use Had to instead of Must in the past tense: I had to pay my speeding ticket yesterday.

3.11. 10- Mustn't VS Don't have to

3.11.1. Mustn’t It’s prohibited, it is not allowed. It is important that you do NOT something. You must not drink that Don’t have to There is no obligation, you are not required to do something especially if you don’t want to. You don’t have to drink that

3.12. 11- Shall

3.12.1. Suggestion:Shall I get a pizza for dinner tonight? Offers/ Volunteering: That bag looks heavy. Shall I carry it for you? Instructions: What shall I do with your mail when it arrives? Promises: You shall be the first person to know Confirmation: I shall meet you there at 7 Shall is not used much nowadays. It is used in formal speech

3.13. 12- Would

3.13.1. Formal request: Would you mind passing me the salt, please? Offer: Would you like to eat pizza? Formal way.


4.1. 1- Could have + past participle

4.1.1. Possibility to do something in the past which wasn’t done in the end It was on sale last weel. We could have bought it then

4.2. 3- May/might have + past participle

4.2.1. A guess or possibility that something was true He may/might have bought a new flat

4.3. 4- Must have +past participle

4.3.1. Certainty or logical conclusion about an event in the past They must have been busy recently, since they haven’t texted us back

4.4. 5- Should/ ought to have

4.4.1. Criticism or regret after an event You should/ ought to have made an appointment earlier.

4.5. 6- Shouldn’t have + past participle

4.5.1. Criticism or regret after an event We shouldn’t have spent so much money on that plasma screen

4.6. 7- Would have +past participle

4.6.1. Willingness or desire to do something which wasn’t actually done. I would have stayed longer, but I had to leave for personal reasons

4.7. 8- Needn’t have + past participle

4.7.1. To express that there was no obligation or necessity to do something. You needn’t have given me a present. Thank you very much!