Chapters 6 and 7

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Chapters 6 and 7 by Mind Map: Chapters 6 and 7

1. Partial Truths

1.1. "[T]his carnivalization of desire is largely, although not entirely, a masculinist vision of desire and transgression"

1.2. Sexuality is pervasive in Carioca identity It is a key metaphor used in every day language and social life

1.2.1. It holds no taboos, Cariocas posses an open, permissive approach to sexuality At the same time, however, points of contention such as homoerotic behavior or the gendered double standard on fidelity are not brought up

1.2.2. Sexual humor and word play relays a subtle sense of humor allowing for the transmission of commentaries that may be more difficult to talk about in person

1.2.3. Public flirtation is seen as an elaborate game enjoyed by both sexes Brazilian women regardless of class attest to enjoying flirtatious exchange and the validation it brings

1.3. The "local culture's training of young boys for manhood, a training that constructs masculinity and masculine sexuality as aggressive and even predatory and that punishes gentle men...who are sexually inexperienced"

1.3.1. Sexual abuse between older males and young people continue under the false assumption these young people have agency with their abusers

2. Homosexuality in context

2.1. Male homosexuality in Brazil is separated into two sub-sets, an upper-class and a lower-class model

2.1.1. Upper-class version adheres to the conceptualization of homosexuality "that connects one's sexual and social identity with one's sexual object choice"

2.1.2. Lower-class version recognizes two categories Homens (men) are seen as active, maintaining their masculine identity through penetration regardless of their sexual object choice Bichas (worm, derogatory term) are seen as passive and receiving and therefore effeminate

2.1.3. The inability to speak critically of sex and gender disallows a detailed view of gender power relations and normative heterosexual relations This leaves the lower classes in the position of second class citizens, but criticism and commentary does arise in the favelas through the use of humor

3. Sexual identity

3.1. Sexual status is relayed through the metaphor of eating Men traditionally "eat" while women "give" This differentiation only refers to if you eat or if you or ate, not what you consume

3.1.1. A male who "eats" other men can maintain a strong masculine identity while those men who are ate lose status Women who are perceived as being active sexually are put down into a lower class Those women who are deemed to consume too many sexual partners are referred to as chickens or piranas

3.2. Women use sex as a bargaining tool with their partners in order to provide for themselves and their family To cuckold a husband is to make him grow horns, an ox

3.2.1. Subversion of the norm in the case of Sarlete gave her power Those who ate her ended up dead "Women overturn the gender hierarchy embedded in the eating metaphors that make men symbolically dominant in the language of sexuality"

3.3. Among working class men, a lack of sexual release is claimed to cause insanity Young men are expected to become active seducers

3.3.1. Double standard when engaging in sexual activity Gloria wishes for her son to be sexually active as long as he uses protection She wishes her daughters to abstain, partly out of fear of more children

3.4. Fear of sexual abuse in family is raised in cases of a stepfather or godfather

4. What's So Funny about Rape?

4.1. Though the devastating experience of rape is painful and lingering, the absurd dark humor used by those recounting a rape in the favelas is used as a way of relaying that suffering

4.2. Rape is sometimes met with retaliatory violence or murder but often the victims find themselves left without any protection or support "The telling of the robbery and rape story provided a way for sexuality, violence, and female victimization do be dealt with through humor"

4.2.1. Gloria's neighbor Soneca retells the story of the rape by prefacing the fact that one of Gloria's daughters (Anita) had already lost her virginity Soneca contends that Anita feigned her screams to match that of her sister's (Claudia) in order to prevent Gloria from concluding that her daughter was already sexually active This take on the story emphasizes the resourcefulness of Anita instead of the violent acts Anita and Claudia were forced to endure

5. Wit and Humor as a weapon

5.1. After the rape, Gloria spent all of her resources on attempting to procure an abortion for Anita who she assumed was impregnated by one of their assailants In actuality, Anita was pregnant with the child of her boyfriend Gabriel with whom she had been sexually active for months before the rape

5.1.1. Anita contends that the constant pressure at home from her mother Gloria drove her to seek comfort in Gabriel The fact that her stepfather Ignacio was more concerned with the loss of his watch than the rape also led to Gloria's decicion to leave him

5.1.2. Later Gabriel and Anita marry and have a child Gloria is upset that Gabriel does not provide enough for his family, the same argument Anita uses in her criticism of Gloria's boyfriend Lil Ze This sort of vicious power play is common in Brazil Many times a woman will seek a more stable partner that can provide more but will find herself in a worse or more abusive relationship than before

6. Rape and the Justice System

6.1. Lower-class women making accusations of rape in court must adopt a more elite view of sexuality, especially in the case of preserving virginity Rape has become difficult to adjudicate in court because "it relies on stereotyped gender views of both the perpetrator and the victim"

6.1.1. This forces some women to seek the protection of another male which may ultimately end in a violent situation

7. Conclusions

7.1. Though laughter may seem "out of place," the stories told from local favelas only become funny when the full context of each story is known

7.2. Power relations, gender, class, sex and more come into play as each situation relies heavily on context and the connotations of each event

7.2.1. The women of the favelas are at the mercy of a sex-positive society in which little is done to protect the bodies of women from transgressive male behavior This cycle and the structures of hierarchy constrict their lives as they caught in a cycle in which humor allows them an outlet

7.3. In order to change this cycle, democratic application of law must be brought to the "brown zones" and steps must be made to prosecute any for crime, regardless of class, ethnicity or gender The law must be for all and protect all