Chapter 9: Human resource management

Principle of Management courseTextbook: management fundamentals 8th ed by Robert N. Lussier

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Chapter 9: Human resource management by Mind Map: Chapter 9: Human resource management

1. I. The human resource management process

1.1. The human resource department

1.1.1. Realistic job review (RJP)

1.1.2. Outsourcing: Outsourcing payroll and benefits lets the company focus on the more important activities of attracting and developing employees.

1.1.3. SHRM: Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). Its work is dedicated primarily to two areas—advocacy for national HR laws and policies for organizations and training and certification of HR professionals in a number of specialty areas.

1.1.4. HRM for all

1.2. The legal environment

1.2.1. Federal laws relating to HRM: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for enforcing equal opportunity laws.

1.2.2. State and Local Government Employment Laws: However, all of the states and some cities have additional laws that must be followed, such as the minimum wage laws

1.2.3. Preemployment Inquiries: ask related and inoffensive one!

1.3. Harassment and Sexual harassment and Workplace romance

1.3.1. Harassment is a form of employment that is unwelcome conduct that is based on race,color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability, or genetic information.

1.3.2. Sexual harassment is any unwelcomed behavior of a sexual nature. Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when sexual consent affects job outcomes, such as getting a job or assignment or promotion, or keeping one’s job. Hostile work environment sexual harassment occurs when unwelcomed sexual behavior creates an intimidating and offensive workplace for anyone

1.3.3. HRM Sexual Harassment and Romance Policies. Why? Sexuality at work detracts from productivity. (some company will have romance policies)

1.3.4. Verbal Warning and Reporting Violations.

2. II. Human resource planning

2.1. Strategic Human Resource planning

2.1.1. Strategic human resources planning is the process of staffing the organization to meet its objectives.

2.2. Job analysis

2.2.1. Job analysis is the process of determining what the position entails (job description) and the qualifications needed (job specifications) to staff the position. The job description identifies the tasks and responsibilities of a position. It is often called a realistic job preview (RJP) Based on the job description, you determine job specifications. Job specifications identify the qualifications needed by the person who is to fill a position.

3. III. Attracting employees

3.1. Recruiting

3.1.1. Recruiting is the process of attracting qualified candidates to apply for job openings. 6 recruitng sources Internal Recruiting/Mobility: Internal recruiting involves filling job openings with current employees Employee referrals: Employees may be encouraged to refer external friends and relatives to apply for positions Walk-ins: Without actually being recruited, good candidates may come to an organization “cold” and ask for a job Outside organizations: Recruiting takes place at high schools, vocational/technical schools, colleges, professional associations, career conferences, and trade and job fairs Agencies Advertising/Internet

3.2. The selection process

3.2.1. Selection is the process of choosing the most qualified applicant recruited for a job Application Form Screening Interviews Testing. Background and Reference Checks Interviewing Hiring

3.3. Selection interviewing

3.3.1. Types of Interviews and Questions

3.3.2. Preparing for and Conducting the Interview

3.3.3. Problems to Avoid Don't rush Don't stereotype don’t hire people who are your clones—recall the benefits of diversity don’t consider just one or two positive or negative things

3.3.4. Selecting the Candidate

4. IV.Developing employees

4.1. Orientation Programs, Onboarding, and Newcomer Socialization

4.1.1. Orientation Programs five important elements should be included: (1) description of organization and department functions, (2) specification of job tasks and responsibilities, (3) explanation of standing plans, (4) a tour, and (5) introduction to coworkers.

4.1.2. Onboarding and Newcomer Socialization Newcomer socialization refers to the process through which new employees acquire the knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes required for effective participation in the firm Onboarding is about socializing new hires and developing relationships.

4.2. Training and Development

4.2.1. The ADIE Model You Assess training needs, Design the training, Implement it, and Evaluate results.

4.2.2. Training Versus Development Training is the process of teaching employees the skills necessary to perform a job Development is ongoing education to improve skills for present and future jobs.

4.2.3. Off-the-Job and On-the-Job Training off-the-job training is conducted away from the work site, often in some sort of classroom setting A common method is vestibule training. Vestibule training develops skills in a simulated setting. On-the-job training (OJT) is done at the work site with the resources the employee uses to perform the job

4.2.4. Job Instructional Training You essentially (1) explain the task objective, (2) demonstrate how to do the task, (3) watch employees perform the task and correct as needed until they can do the task on their own, and (4) tell them whom to see if they have any questions or need help, and keep an eye on them in case they need more training

4.2.5. Microlearning

4.2.6. Training and Development Methods

4.3. Performance appraisal

4.3.1. Performance appraisal is the ongoing process of evaluating employee performance. The Performance Appraisal Process You Get What You Reinforce Standards and Measurement Methods

4.3.2. In some cases, the evaluation is expanded to everyone the employees come into contact with, including other departments, customers, and suppliers through 360-degree feedback.

4.3.3. Developmental and Evaluative Performance Appraisal Interviews. A developmental performance appraisal is used to make decisions and plans for performance improvements An evaluative performance appraisal is used to make administrative decisions about such issues as pay raises, transfers and promotions, and demotions and terminations

4.3.4. Being Evaluated

5. V. Retaining and Separating Employees

5.1. Compensation

5.1.1. Compensation is the total of an employee’s pay and benefits Pay level reflects top management’s choice to be a high-, medium-, or low-paying organization

5.1.2. Pay Systems 1) Wages are paid on an hourly basis (2) Salary is based on time—a week, a month, or a year. (3) Incentives are pay for performance. Incentives include piece rate (pay based on production), commissions (pay based on sales), merit raises (the more productive workers get paid more), and bonuses.

5.1.3. Pay determination An internal approach is to use job evaluation. Job evaluation is the process of determining the worth of each job relative to the other jobs within the organization

5.1.4. Benefits Benefits are various nonwage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. ALegally required benefits include workers’ compensation to cover job-related injuries, unemployment compensation to provide for employees who are laid off or terminated, Medicare for health insurance, and Social Security for retirement. Work–Life Balance and Benefits. Businesses are increasingly using flexible work practices (FWPs), allowing employees control over when, where, or how much they work because it improves work–life balance and job satisfaction and lowers stress

5.2. Health and Safety

5.3. Union and Labour relations

5.3.1. A labor union is an organization that represents employees in collective bargaining with the employer over wages, benefits, and working conditions.

5.3.2. Labor relations are the interactions between management and unionized employees. Labor relations are also called union– management relations and industrial relations

5.3.3. The Union-organizing process

5.3.4. Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining is the negotiation process resulting in a contract between employees and management that covers employment conditions

5.4. Seperating Employees

5.4.1. Attrition Attrition occurs when employees leave for other jobs, elect to stop working for a time, or retire. (voluntary)

5.4.2. Firing Reasons for termination should be spelled out in the company’s HR employee manual based on avoiding wrongful discharge

5.4.3. Layoffs/downsizing Layoffs usually occur because of poor economic conditions, organizational problems, or mergers and acquisitions