Animal Systems

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Animal Systems by Mind Map: Animal Systems

1. Human Body Systems

1.1. Circulatory system: transports substances throughout the body, circulates oxygen, carbon dioxide, heat, water and nutrients

1.1.1. Major organs: Heart, arteries, veins

1.2. Excretory system: filters waste from blood, maintains internal nutrient balances and gets rid of body waste

1.2.1. Major organs: Kidneys, urethra, bladder

1.3. Reproductive system: produces offspring, regulates sexual characteristics

1.3.1. Major organs: testes, ovaries, uterus

1.4. Digestive system: breaks down macromolecules, absorbs nutrients

1.4.1. Major organs: Liver (multiple systems), small and large intestines, stomach

1.5. Skeletal system: provides body structure and support. Bone marrow creates new blood cells for circulation

1.5.1. Major organs: bones, cartilage

1.6. Muscular system: allows for movement

1.6.1. Major organ: skeletal muscle

1.7. Nervous system: control system of the body, stimulates heart rate and controls blood oxygen levels

1.7.1. Major organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves

1.8. Integumentary system: protects body transfer of heat, sensory reception, releases sweat and heat from blood to control body temperature

1.8.1. Major organs: skin, nails

1.9. Endocrine system: circulates hormones around body to control function

1.9.1. Major organs: Adrenals, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, hypothalmus

1.10. Lymphatic system: helps maintain circulatory system and has immunity cells

1.10.1. Major organ: lymph nodes

1.11. Respiratory system: ventilation for body, takes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide

1.11.1. Major organs: lungs, diaphragm, trachea

2. Circulatory System

2.1. Disorders/problems

2.1.1. Hypertension: condition where blood pressure is higher than normal and can lead to heart attack or stroke

2.1.2. Stroke: results from blood clots that block vessels in the brain

2.1.3. Heart attack: blockage of blood flow to heart

2.1.4. Anemia: abnormally low level of hemoglobin (binds oxygen in red blood cells)

2.1.5. Leukemia: extra white blood cells are produced

2.1.6. Hemophilia: blood plasma does not have substances to help blood clot

2.2. Consists of organs and tissues to transport material needed in body cells and remove waste

2.2.1. Open transport system: Commonly used in insects, blood bathes the cells directly and moves through muscle contractions

2.2.2. Closed transport system: Commonly used in humans, frogs and birds, blood is pumped around the body using vessels and only in one direction (nutrients must pass through blood vessel walls to reach cells)

2.2.2.1. Humans have a closed 'double' circulatory system: two systems that work together as a unit (two pumps in the heart).

2.2.2.1.1. Arteries carry oxygenated blood and veins carry deoxygenated blood (except for the pulmonary vein and artery)

2.3. How it works

2.3.1. Hormones regulate cell activity

2.3.2. Oxygen from the lungs combines with nutrients from digestive system that feeds the cells

2.3.3. Antibodies from different parts of the body help fight sickness

2.3.4. Waste is carried to the liver and kidneys for removal

2.3.5. Carbon dioxide is carried away and delivered to lungs which remove it from the body

2.4. Parts of the system

2.4.1. Heart: pumps blood through two major pathways

2.4.1.1. Consists of 4 chambers where blood flows

2.4.1.2. Blood enters R atrium -> R ventricle -> pumps blood to lungs where it becomes oxygenated

2.4.1.3. Oxygenated blood is brought back to the heart by pulmonary veins which enter L atrium

2.4.1.4. L atrium -> L ventricle -> aorta -> distributes oxygenated blood throughout rest of body

2.4.2. Blood vessels and blood

2.4.2.1. Arteries: carry oxygenated blood away from heart, have thick walls because pressure is higher

2.4.2.2. Veins: carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart

2.4.2.3. Capillaries: site of gas, waste and nutrient exchange, very thin small red blood cells travel in capillaries

2.4.2.4. Blood: mixture of solids in a large amount of plasma

2.4.2.4.1. Plasma: 92% water. Transports blood, nutrients, hormones and other materials

2.4.2.4.2. Red blood cells: carry oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide away

2.4.2.4.3. White blood cells: help fight sickness

2.4.2.4.4. Platelets: help blood form a clot at the site of a wound

2.4.2.4.5. Blood pressure

2.4.3. Pulmonary circulation: the flow of the blood going from the heart -> lungs -> heart

2.4.3.1. Transports oxygen-poor blood from R ventricle to lungs where it gets new oxygen supply, then returns the blood to L atrium now that it is oxygen-rich

2.4.4. Systemic circulation: the flow of the blood to all body tissues except lungs

2.4.4.1. carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and picks up waste products

3. Mechanisms of Breathing

3.1. Our lungs are gas exchange systems, so deoxygenated blood needs to be converted to oxygenated blood (CO2 out, O2 in)

3.1.1. Occurs in a moist environment. The surface where the gases are exchanged is called respiratory membrane

3.1.1.1. For efficient gas exchange to occur, water must be present to make the moist environment

3.1.2. Two structures involved: diaphragm and intercostal muscles (this is how we inhale and exhale)

3.1.2.1. Diaphragm: dome muscle, moves up and down

3.1.2.2. Intercostal: rib muscles, move in and out to control volume inside the lungs (air pressure)

3.1.2.2.1. Internal intercostal: inner surface, pull ribs down and in

3.1.2.2.2. External intercostals: outer surface, pulls ribs up and out

3.1.3. Boyle's Law: pressure is proportional to volume, so when pressure increases, volume decreases and vice versa

3.2. Inspiration

3.2.1. Diaphragm contracts and pulls down, external intercostal muscles contract, ribs move up and outward, volume of chest cavity increases

3.2.2. Increase in volume causes decrease in air pressure. Gas moves from an area of high pressure (atmosphere) to low pressure (chest cavity) and air enters the lungs

3.3. Expiration

3.3.1. Diaphragm relaxes and returns to dome shape, external intercostal muscles relax, ribs down down and inward, volume of chest cavity decreases

3.3.2. Decrease in volume causes increase in pressure. gas moves from area of high pressure (chest cavity) to area of low pressure (atmosphere) and air exits the lungs

4. Respiratory System

4.1. Disorders

4.1.1. Asthma: airways narrow and swell, making it harder to breathe

4.1.2. Cystic fibrosis: genetic disease that causes persistent lung infections and limits the ability to breathe overtime

4.1.3. Pneumonia: Infection that inflames your alveoli and causes sacs to fill with fluid or pus, causing fever, cough, trouble breathing, etc

4.1.4. Tuberculosis: bacteria attacking the lungs

4.1.5. Bronchitis: inflammation of bronchial tubes which causes trouble breathing

4.2. Primary function: breathing (gas exchange). Cells need intake of oxygen, carbon dioxide releases waste. Also produces sound

4.3. 4 stages of respiration Respiration: overall process Breathing: a stage in respiration

4.3.1. 1. Breathing: inspiration and expiration. Inspiration moves air from outside the body into the lungs Expiration moves air from the lungs back to the outside

4.3.2. 2. External respiration: exchange of gases between lungs and blood, such as O2 and CO2

4.3.3. 3. Internal respiration: exchange of gases between blood and cell tissue

4.3.4. 4. Cellular respiration: inside mitochondria

4.4. Upper respiratory

4.4.1. Nose and mouth

4.4.1.1. Nose: point of entry, filters, warms and moistens air

4.4.1.2. Mouth: warms and moistens air

4.4.2. Pharynx

4.4.2.1. Connects nasal and oral cavity to larynx

4.4.3. Larynx

4.4.3.1. Contains vocal chords and opening to lungs

4.4.4. Trachea

4.4.4.1. Air passage (windpipe) that splits into 2 bronchi

4.4.5. Epiglottis

4.4.5.1. Flap that prevents food from entering the lungs by blocking the opening of the trachea

4.5. Lower respiratory

4.5.1. Bronchi

4.5.1.1. Two tubes, one for each lung. Each carry air into lungs and splits into bronchioles

4.5.2. Bronchioles

4.5.2.1. Many branches of air to carry to alveoli (regulates flow)

4.5.3. Alveoli

4.5.3.1. Site of external respiration, very small thin sacs

4.5.4. Pleural membrane

4.5.4.1. Surrounds lungs and lines chest cavity, also reduces friction between lungs and chest cavity

5. Digestive System

5.1. Disorders

5.1.1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: chronic inflammation of GI tract (intestines) causing abdominal pain and stool issues

5.1.2. Hepatitis: inflammation of liver

5.1.3. Cirrhosis: sever liver scarring that makes it unable to function

5.1.4. Gallstones: hardened pieces of digestive fluid that form in the gallbladder

5.1.5. Diabetes: disease where the body does not properly process food to use for energy (problem in pancreas)

5.2. Food is broken down so that our bodies can use it for energy/fuel for our cells

5.2.1. Lipids: used for storing energy, examples are fats or oils

5.2.2. Carbohydrates: sugars and starch are digestable carbohydrates, fibre is indigestible. Glucose is needed by all body cells as energy (ex: nerve cells must have it to operate)

5.2.3. Proteins: amino acids from digested protein are used by cells to build structure and support for our body (ex: insulin, enzymes)

5.2.3.1. Amylase enzyme: breaks starch down to glucose

5.2.3.2. Protease enzyme: breaks protein down into amino acids

5.2.3.3. Lipase enzymes: breaks fats down into fatty acids and glycerol

5.2.4. Minerals: sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, etc are all examples of minerals humans need, and they are usually found in fruits, meats and non-processed food

5.2.5. Vitamins: play roles in metabolism and help cell processes

5.2.6. Physical/Mechanical digestion: act of breaking food into smaller pieces using your mouth (teeth) as well as stomach contractions

5.2.7. Chemical digestion: enzymes and water break down food in your body

5.3. 4 stages in digestion

5.3.1. 1. Ingestion: taking in of nutrients

5.3.2. 2. Digestion: breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by enzymes

5.3.3. 3. Absorption: digested nutrients are transported to body tissue

5.3.4. 4. Elimination: removing food waste

5.4. Structure

5.4.1. Teeth: used for cutting, tearing, grinding or crushing (mechanical digestion)

5.4.2. Tongue: strong muscle, has taste buds, helps swallow

5.4.3. Saliva: fluid made by salivary glands, helps break down complex carbs, lubricates food, dissolves particles

5.4.4. Pharynx: swallowing reflex, divides food and air

5.4.5. Epiglottis: covers the trachea to prevent food from entering the windpipe

5.4.6. Peristalsis: contraction of muscle that moves through the esophagus

5.4.7. Stomach: Food storage and protein digestion

5.4.7.1. Sphincters: regulate the movement of food so that it stays in the stomach and does not go back up the esophagus

5.4.7.2. Gastric juice: fluids that line the stomach wall

5.4.8. Small intestine: absorbs and digests food

5.4.8.1. Duodenum: most digestion occurs in this part

5.4.8.2. Jejunum: many folds that continue the breakdown of proteins and carbs

5.4.8.3. Ileum: unabsorbed particles are pushed through

5.4.9. Large intestine: absorbs water and minerals

5.4.9.1. Cecum: storage area, ends with appendix

5.4.9.2. Colon: largest part of intestine, stores waste so that more vitamins/minerals can be absorbed

5.4.10. Liver: produces bile for digestion, detoxifies blood, recycles red blood cells that are damaged

5.4.11. Gall bladder: stores bile if the stomach is empty

5.4.12. Rectum & Anus: chemical digestion is finished at the large intestine, so the rectum collects waste for excretion and anus pushed out the discharge of feces

6. Medical Technologies

6.1. Organ donation

6.1.1. The following is able to be donated after death: heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, lungs, intestines, corneas, skin, tendons, bone, nerve and heart valves

6.2. Endoscopes

6.2.1. Looks at digestive system abnormalities by sending a small camera down your body to look at your bowel, and the capsule gets left inside but they take the camera back out

6.3. Lasers

6.3.1. Lasik alters the shape of the eyeball using lasers (eye surgery)

6.4. MRI's (magnetic resonance imaging)

6.4.1. Takes many X Rays at different angles and creates a 3D image of the inside of the body. Has a moving slider that moves the person through a tube

6.5. CAT scans

6.5.1. similar to MRI's except they use X Rays as opposed to magnets and radio waves, and it is faster

6.6. Nuclear medicine

6.6.1. A chemical is injected in the patient and distributes in the body and the radioactivity shows on the X Ray image

6.7. Arthroscopic surgery

6.7.1. Procedure for treating joint problems. To diagnose, the surgeon inserts a camera through a small incision to see inside the joint

6.8. Ultrasounds

6.8.1. Mainly used on pregnant women, examines the internal anatomy through the use of sound waves and to see progressive development

6.9. Computer software used in viewing 3D models

6.9.1. Mobile diagnoses makes a huge difference (patients are diagnosed 24% faster)