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Research Studies: detect cause-and-effect relationships between variables by Mind Map: Research Studies: detect cause-and-effect
relationships between variables
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Research Studies: detect cause-and-effect relationships between variables

Observational Studies

unit

participant

types

retrospective study

prospective study

case-control study

Experiments: measure the effect of manipulated conditions

Randomized experiments

treatments

randomization, type of treatment, order of treatments

control group

placebos, placebo effect

blinding

blinding, double-blind, single-blind, double dummy

designs, matched-pair designs, block design, blocks, randomized block design, repeated-measures designs, completely randomized design

experimental unit

subjects

volunteers

Variables

explanatory variable

response variable

outcome variable

dependent variable

independent variable

confounding variable

lurking variable

Difficulties and Disasters

confounding variables

interacting variables

confounding variables

Rule for Concluding Cause and Effect

experimenter effects

Hawthorne effect

ecological validity