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1. Technology

1.1. Frontiers

1.1.1. Scalability "The Bitcoin Lightning Network: Scalable Off-Chain Instant Payments" "RapidChain: Scaling Blockchain via Full Sharding" "Divide and Scale: Formalization of Distributed Ledger Sharding Protocols"

1.1.2. Consensus algorithms

1.1.3. Token economics "Token Ecosystem Creation: A strategic process to architect and engineer viable token economies" Token Taxonomy Framework

1.1.4. Interoperability "Towards a Design Philosophy for Interoperable Blockchain Systems"

1.1.5. Governance "The State of Blockchain Governance: Governance by and of blockchains"

1.1.6. Regulation

1.1.7. Reducing energy consumption

1.2. Blockchains

1.2.1. Consensus protocols Proof of work "The Proof-of-Work Concept" -Satoshi Nakamoto Institute Proof of stake "A Proof of Stake Design Philosophy" -Vitalik Buterin "On Stake" -Vitalik Buterin Practical Byzantine fault tolerance "Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance" "Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild" "Survey of Distributed Consensus Protocols for Blockchain Networks"

1.2.2. Ethereum Ethereum Whitepaper

1.2.3. Bitcoin "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" -Satoshi Nakamoto Bitcoin Learning Resources

1.2.4. Hyperledger Hyperledger White Papers

1.2.5. Steller "The Stellar Consensus Protocol: A Federated Model for Internet-level Consensus"

1.2.6. EOS EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2

1.2.7. Tezos "Tezos — a self-amending crypto-ledger"

1.2.8. Tron White Paper 2.0 - TRON

1.2.9. and more

1.3. Related technologies

1.3.1. IOTA "The Tangle"

1.3.2. "Hardware Wallets Explained"

1.3.3. "Hardware requirements of blockchain clients"

2. Blockchain explained

2.1. Terminology Glossary

2.2. Blockchain flow chart

2.3. "Who writes the rules of a blockchain?" -HBS

2.4. Philosophy

2.4.1. "Toward a Philosophy of Blockchain: A Symposium: Introduction"

2.4.2. "The blockchain as a narrative technology: Investigating the social ontology and normative configurations of cryptocurrencies"

2.4.3. "On Public and Private Blockchains" -Vitalik Buterin

3. Concerns

3.1. Energy usage

3.1.1. "How Much Energy Does Bitcoin Actually Consume?"

3.1.2. "The Energy Consumption of Blockchain Technology: Beyond Myth"

3.1.3. "Decarbonizing Bitcoin: Law and policy choices for reducing the energy consumption of Blockchain technologies and digital currencies"

3.1.4. "The green blockchain: Managing decentralized energy production and consumption"

3.2. Threats

3.2.1. "Here’s Why Quantum Computing Will Not Break Cryptocurrencies"

3.2.2. "How the Crypto World Is Preparing for Quantum Computing, Explained"

3.2.3. "Quantum computers and the Bitcoin blockchain: An analysis of the impact quantum computers might have on the Bitcoin blockchain"

3.3. Lack of regulation

3.3.1. "Beyond bitcoin: Issues in regulating blockchain tranactions"

3.3.2. "Regulatory issues in blockchain technology"

3.3.3. "7 regulatory challenges facing blockchain"

3.3.4. "Legal Challenges Of Blockchain Technology"

3.3.5. "What is the black market worth — and how much of it is crypto"

4. History of blockchain

4.1. Seminal papers

4.1.1. "A Certified Digital Signature" -Ralph C. Merkle, 1979

4.1.2. "Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses, and Digital Pseudonyms" - David Chaum, 1981

4.1.3. "Computer Systems Established, Maintained and Trusted by Mutually Suspicious Groups" -David Chaum, 1982

4.1.4. "How to Timestamp a Digital Document" -Stuart Haber, W. Scott Stornetta, 1991

4.1.5. "Smart Contracts" -Nick Szabo, 1994

4.1.6. "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" -Satoshi Nakamoto, 2008

4.1.7. "Ethereum: A Next Generation Smart Contract & Decentralized Application Platform" -Vitalik Buterin, 2013

4.1.8. "Zerocash: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from Bitcoin" -Eli Ben Sasson et al., 2014

4.1.9. "A Note on Cryptocurrency Stabilisation: Seigniorage Shares" -Robert Sams, 2014

4.1.10. "The Bitcoin Lightning Network: Scalable Off-Chain Instant Payments" -Joseph Poon, Thaddeus Dryja, 2016

4.1.11. "Uniswap v2 Core" -Hayden Adams, Noah Zinsmeister, Dan Robinson, 2020

4.2. Phases of development

4.2.1. "Blockchain 1.0 to Blockchain 4.0—The Evolutionary Transformation of Blockchain Technology"

4.2.2. Blockchain 1.0

4.2.3. Blockchain 2.0

4.2.4. Blockchain 3.0

5. Practical guides

5.1. For businesses

5.1.1. "Technology & Suppliers: Enterprise Blockchain Essentials Guide"

5.1.2. "A Guide to Blockchain Technology for Business"

5.1.3. "Blockchain Implementation for Your Business"

5.2. For individuals

5.2.1. "Beginners Guide to Blockchain: Getting started in Blockchain Development"

5.2.2. "How to Invest in Cryptocurrency"

5.2.3. "Cryptocurrency Trading 2021: Everything You Need To Know To Start Today"

5.2.4. "Breaking into Blockchain: How to Get a Job in Crypto"

5.2.5. "Want to Buy Crypto? Here’s What to Look for In a Crypto Exchange"

5.2.6. "How You Can Build a Career in Blockchain"

5.3. Communities

5.3.1. IEEE Blockchain technical communities

5.3.2. Complete List of Blockchain Developer Communities

5.3.3. Top Online Crypto Communities

6. Related fields

6.1. Cryptography

6.1.1. Cryptography Basics

6.1.2. Handbook of Applied Cryptography

6.1.3. Cryptography: Theory and Practice

6.1.4. Introduction to Modern Cryptography

6.2. Distributed computing

6.2.1. Distributed computing: fundamentals, simulations, and advanced topics

6.2.2. "The process group approach to reliable distributed computing"

6.3. Web 3.0

6.3.1. "What Is Web 3.0 & Why It Matters"

6.3.2. "Web 3.0 Emerging"

6.3.3. "Defining Web 3.0: opportunities and challenges"

6.3.4. "Comparative Study of Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0"

6.4. Industry 4.0

6.4.1. "Industry 4.0"

6.4.2. "Industry 4.0: state of the art and future trends"

6.4.3. "Industry 4.0: Towards future industrial opportunities and challenges"

6.4.4. "A Complex View of Industry 4.0"

6.5. Game theory

6.5.1. Game Theory

6.5.2. "A primer in game theory"

6.5.3. "Algorithmic game theory"

6.5.4. "Computational aspects of cooperative game theory"

7. Resource collections

7.1. [Github] Blockchain

7.2. [Github] Awesome Blockchain

7.3. [Mindmap] Blockchain Use cases

7.4. [Investopedia Overview] Blockchain Explained

7.5. [Binance Academy Overview] What is Blockchain Technology?

7.6. [Towards Data Science Overview] A Deep Dive into Blockchain

7.7. Whitepaper Database

8. Energy

8.1. Overview

8.1.1. "Blockchain technology in the energy sector: A systematic review of challenges and opportunities"

8.1.2. "Building Block(chain)s for a Better Planet"

8.2. Local energy markets/smart grids

8.2.1. "A blockchain-based smart grid: towards sustainable local energy markets"

8.3. Peer-to-peer energy trading

8.3.1. "Energy Crowdsourcing and Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading in Blockchain-Enabled Smart Grids"

8.4. Commodity trading

8.4.1. "Can Blockchain Disrupt Energy and Commodity Trading?"

8.5. Ventures

8.5.1. LO3 "EXERGY: Business Whitepaper"

8.5.2. Power Ledger Power Ledger White Paper

8.5.3. SolarCoin "SolarCoin: A bockchain-based solar energy incentive"

8.5.4. Energy Web "The Energy Web Chain: Accelerating the Energy Transition with an Open-Source, Decentralized Blockchain Platform"

8.5.5. Suncontract "Suncontract Whitepaper: An energy trading platform that utilises blockchain technology to create a new disruptive model for buying and selling electricity"

9. Internet of Things (IoT)

9.1. Overview

9.1.1. "The Internet of Things: A survey"

9.1.2. IoT White Papers

9.1.3. "Internet of Things for Telecom Engineers: A Report on Current State and Future Technologies" -IEEE

9.1.4. "On blockchain and its integration with IoT. Challenges and opportunities"

9.1.5. "How Blockchain can Unlock the Power of the Internet of Things"

9.1.6. "Blockchain, IoT and AI — A Perfect Fit"

9.1.7. Distributed device management

9.1.8. Commercial transportation

9.1.9. Product tracking

9.2. Supply chain & Logistics

9.2.1. "Blockchain technology and its relationships to sustainable supply chain management"

9.2.2. "Building a Transparent Supply Chain" -HBS

9.2.3. "How Blockchain Will Redefine Supply Chain Management" -Knowledge@Wharton

9.2.4. "Blockchain technology for supply chains—A must or a maybe?" -McKinsey & Company

9.3. Ventures

9.3.1. Helium "Helium: A Decentralized Wireless Network"

9.3.2. Chronicled "The Method & Impact of Eliminating Chargeback Errors through Blockchain"

9.3.3. NetObjex IoT Blockchain Platform WHITEPAPER

9.3.4. Hypr "True Passwordless Security White Paper"

9.3.5. Xage Security "Decentralized and Adaptive Security for the New Industrial Edge"

9.3.6. Grid+ "Grid+: Welcome to the Future of Energy"

10. Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs)

10.1. Overview

10.1.1. "All About NFTs" -a16z

10.1.2. "NFT Use Cases, Today and Tomorrow" -a16z

10.1.3. "The Creator Economy: NFTs and Beyond" -a16z

10.1.4. "The NFT Gold Rush: How Cryptoartists Kick-Started a Boom" -NYT

10.2. Marketplaces

10.2.1. OpenSea

10.2.2. Rarible

10.2.3. SuperRare

10.2.4. Foundation

10.2.5. AtomicMarket

10.3. Metaverse

10.3.1. "Virtual Products & NFTs in the Metaverse"

10.3.2. "Will NFTs Power The Metaverse?"

10.3.3. NFT World: Gateway to the Metaverse

10.4. Cryptomedia

10.4.1. "Cultural Liquidity: The Rise of Cryptomedia"

10.4.2. Zora

11. Artificial Intelligence (AI)

11.1. Overview

11.1.1. "Blockchain for AI: Review and Open Research Challenges"

11.1.2. "The Fourth Industrial Revolution Built On Blockchain And Advanced With AI"

11.2. Creating diverse data sets

11.3. Data protection & monetization

11.4. Trusting AI decision making

11.5. Ventures

11.5.1. SingularityNET SingularityNET Whitepaper 2.0

11.5.2. DeepBrain Chain "DeepBrain Chain: Artificial Intelligence Computing Platform Driven by BlockChain"

11.5.3. Numerai "Numeraire: A Cryptographic Token for Coordinating Machine Intelligence and Preventing Overfitting"

11.5.4. Matrix AI Network MATRIX Technical Whitepaper The MATRIX 2.0 Green Paper

12. Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

12.1. Overview

12.1.1. "How Blockchain Is Changing Finance" -HBS

12.1.2. "Blockchain technology in finance"

12.2. Cryptocurrencies

12.2.1. [Medium] Ultimate Cryptocurrency Resource List

12.2.2. [Bitcoin Wiki] Cryptocurrency Resource List

12.2.3. [a16z Podcast] "Crypto, an Oral Essay"

12.2.4. "3rd Global Cryptocurrency Benchmarking Study"

12.2.5. "Blockchain technology: Transforming libertarian cryptocurrency dreams to finance and banking realities"

12.2.6. Stablecoins MakerDAO "The Maker Protocol: MakerDAO's Multi-Collateral Dai (MCD) System" Tether "Tether: Fiat currencies on the Bitcoin blockchain" Tether controversy Paxos Paxos Standard: White Paper Gemini "The Gemini Dollar: A Regulated Stable Value Coin" True USD "TRUSTTOKEN (TRU): Tokenizing real world assets to create fully collateralized fractional ownership"

12.2.7. Wallets MetaMask Coinbase Wallet Gemeni Hardware wallets

12.2.8. Regulations "Blockchain & Cryptocurrency Regulation 2021 | USA" "Cryptocurrency 2021 Legislation" -NCSL

12.3. Prediction marketplace

12.3.1. Augur "Augur: a Decentralized Oracle and Prediction Market Platform (v2.0)"

12.4. Insurance

12.4.1. Nexus Mutual "NEXUS MUTUAL: A peer-to-peer discretionary mutual on the Ethereum blockchain."

12.4.2. iTrust Finance Whitepaper & Token Economics

12.4.3. Cover Protocol Cover Protocol Product Paper

12.4.4. Etherisc Etherisc White Paper

12.4.5. CoinDCX CarbonDollarX WHITEPAPER

12.5. Investment & Trading

12.5.1. Funds

12.5.2. Airswap "Swap: A Peer-to-Peer Protocol for Trading Ethereum Tokens"

12.5.3. Equilibrium "Equilibrium: #1 decentralized interoperable money market"

12.5.4. Aurox Aurox WHITE PAPER

12.5.5. dYdX "dYdX: A Standard for Decentralized Margin Trading and Derivatives"

12.5.6. Harbor "The Regulated Token™ (R-Token™) Standard"

13. Medicine & Health

13.1. Overview

13.1.1. "Blockchain distributed ledger technologies for biomedical and health care applications"

13.1.2. "Blockchain technology: applications in health care"

13.1.3. "Blockchain Technology in Healthcare: A Systematic Review"

13.2. Health records

13.2.1. "A Case Study for Blockchain in Healthcare: “MedRec” prototype for electronic health records and medical research data"

13.2.2. "Ancile: Privacy-preserving framework for access control and interoperability of electronic health records using blockchain technology"

13.2.3. "Application of blockchain to maintaining patient records in electronic health record for enhanced privacy, scalability, and availability"

13.2.4. Vaccine passports

13.3. Vaccine distribution

13.4. Transparency in clinical trials

13.5. Ventures

13.5.1. BurstIQ "BurstIQ: Bringing Health to Life"

13.5.2. Factom "Factom: Business Processes Secured by Immutable Audit Trails on the Blockchain"

13.5.3. Medicalchain Medicalchain Whitepaper 2.1

13.5.4. Guardtime Guardtime White Papers

13.5.5. Coral Health "Coral Health: The Blockchain for Personalized Medicine"

13.5.6. Robomed Robomed White Paper

13.5.7. Nebula Genomics "Accelerating Genomic Data Generation and Facilitating Genomic Data Access Using Decentralization, Privacy-Preserving Technologies and Equitable Compensation"

14. Governance

14.1. Overview

14.1.1. "Blockchain Technology and Decentralized Governance: Is the State Still Necessary?"

14.1.2. "Governance in Blockchain Technologies & Social Contract Theories"

14.1.3. "Blockchain in government: Benefits and implications of distributed ledger technology for information sharing"

14.2. Voting

14.2.1. "Blockchain-Enabled E-Voting

14.2.2. "What if blockchain technology revolutionised voting?"

14.2.3. "How Blockchain Technology Can Prevent Voter Fraud"

14.2.4. "Going from Bad to Worse: From Internet Voting to Blockchain Voting"

14.2.5. Voatz

14.2.6. Agora

14.2.7. Follow My Vote

14.2.8. SecureVote

14.3. Identity management

14.3.1. "A First Look at Identity Management Schemes on the Blockchain"

14.3.2. "Blockchain Identity Management: The Definitive Guide"

14.3.3. Security tokens

14.4. Public sector

14.4.1. "Blockchains Unchained: Blockchain Technology and its Use in the Public Sector" -OECD

14.4.2. National digital currency "Cryptoassets as National Currency? A Step Too Far" "Why Governments Are Afraid of Bitcoin" "A Global First: Bitcoin as National Currency"

14.5. Legal industry

14.5.1. Smart contracts "Contract law 2.0: ‘Smart’ contracts as the beginning of the end of classic contract law"

14.5.2. Intellectual property rights

14.5.3. Clearing & settlements "Blockchain settlement: Regulation, innovation and application" "Developing Blockchain Real-Time Clearing and Settlement in the EU, U.S., and Globally"

14.6. Prison systems

14.6.1. "Using The Blockchain To Change Prisons" -NPR

14.6.2. "Imprisoned on the Blockchain: How Crypto is Changing the Prison System"

14.7. DAOs

14.7.1. "Decentralized Autonomous Organization to Automate Governance"

14.7.2. DAOHaus's list of DAOs

14.7.3. SingularityDAO "SingularityDAO Governance Whitepaper: Democratised Alpha Generation"

14.7.4. Moloch DAO "The Moloch DAO: Beating the Tragedy of the Commons using Decentralized Autonomous Organizations"

14.7.5. Digix "Digix’s Whitepaper: The Gold Standard in Crypto­Assets"

14.7.6. DAO Stack "DAO Stack: An Operating System for Collective Intelligence"

14.7.7. IMMO "IMMO Manifest"

15. Education

15.1. Overview

15.1.1. "Exploring blockchain technology and its potential applications for education"

15.1.2. "Blockchain-Based Applications in Education: A Systematic Review"

15.2. Records management

15.3. Incentivizing education

15.4. Publishing

15.4.1. "A Framework Proposal for Blockchain-Based Scientific Publishing Using Shared Governance"

15.5. Ventures

15.5.1. Blockcerts

15.5.2. APPII

15.5.3. Gilgamesh Platform

15.5.4. ODEM "Program Staking & Token Architecture"

15.5.5. Sony Global Education

15.5.6. Blockchain Education Network

15.5.7. Disciplina Disciplina White Paper

15.5.8. Parchment

15.5.9. BitDegree BitDegree WHITE PAPER

15.6. OET Blockchian in Education initiatives

15.6.1. Education Blockchain Initiative

15.6.2. Blockchain Innovation Challenge

15.6.3. Education Blockchain Action Network