History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Cuneiform and the Sumerians

1.1. Theocratic culture ruled by priest king

1.2. Skilled artisans

1.3. Music was important

1.4. Sumer Region

1.4.1. Fertile land

1.4.2. Bodies of water close by

1.4.3. Growing crops, i.e., agriculture year round

1.5. Cuneiform

1.5.1. First written language

1.5.2. Used to communicate

1.5.3. Keep track of business transactions

1.5.4. Written on clay tablets

1.5.5. Pictograms

2. Phoenicians

2.1. Phonetic Alphabet

2.1.1. Direct variation of Hieroglyphics

2.1.2. Ties with Cuneiform

2.1.3. Independent creation

2.1.4. First widespread script

2.1.5. Used in many languages

2.1.6. Principles of the alphabet One sound = one letter All letters start with consonants

2.1.7. Success of the alphabet Phoenician merchants using the alphabet throughout trade Spread throughout Europe and North Africa

2.1.8. Effect on class divisions Royalty is no longer above the common man

2.1.9. Change in the Greek Alphabet Adapted Phoenician letters to their own alphabet Most commonly letters were used as vowels

2.1.10. Creation of new alphabets Europe Latin Alphabet Serifs Baseline Middle East

3. Egyptians

3.1. Hieroglyphics

3.1.1. Influences Desire to express oneself through writing Cuneiform

3.1.2. Hiero - sacred

3.1.3. Glyphic - writing, engraving

3.2. Logogram

3.2.1. Visual symbols representing ideas or objects

3.3. Recorded information about religion and government

3.4. Scribes

3.4.1. Students Learn to read and write

3.4.2. Military leaders Communicate in battle

3.4.3. Priests Read and write instructions written on temple walls and papyrus

3.5. Papyrus

3.5.1. Substrate made from reeds

3.6. Books of the Dead

3.6.1. Guided pharaoh's in the afterlife

3.7. Rosetta Stone

3.7.1. Discovered by French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte

3.7.2. Three languages Egyptian Hieroglyphics Demotic Greek

4. The Codex and Illuminated Manuscript

4.1. Scrolls

4.1.1. Long continuous piece of papyrus

4.1.2. Multiple pieces glued together

4.1.3. Rolled up, or rolled with wooden rollers

4.2. Codex

4.2.1. Covered and bound collection of handwritten pages, i.e., a book

4.2.2. Compact, sturdy, ease of reference

4.2.3. Used by church for bibles and scriptures

4.3. Parchment

4.3.1. Made from the skin of sheep, goats, and/or cows

4.3.2. Vellum Finer quality of parchment Made from skin of young calves

4.4. Dark Ages

4.4.1. Cultural and economic deterioration

4.5. Illuminated Manuscript

4.5.1. Made by a monastic monk

4.5.2. Each word written by hand

4.5.3. Borders, illustration, and ornamentation on each page

4.5.4. Natural quill pens Used for extreme detail Made from the plucked feathers of geese, crows, or turkeys

4.5.5. Reserved for religious texts

4.5.6. Printing press declined the creation

5. Linotype

5.1. Christopher Sholes

5.1.1. Invented the typewriter

5.2. Stenopgrahers

5.2.1. Most important and most frequent users of typewriter

5.3. James O. Clephane

5.3.1. Tested Sholes typewriter

5.3.2. Wanted and easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs.

5.4. Ottmar Mergenthaler

5.4.1. Approached by Clephane and his associate for help with the typesetting machine

5.4.2. Came up with the use of a metal matrix to cast type.

5.5. Mechanically set type versus hand set

5.6. Entire line of type instead of one word

5.7. Newspaper industry

5.7.1. More pages produced per day

5.7.2. The New York Tribune, July 1886 First installed linotype machine

5.8. Linotype Keyboard

5.8.1. 90 character keyboard with no shift key - uppercase letters were completely separate from lowercase letters. The arrangement of the keys was based on how frequently the letter was used.The same alphabet arranged twice.

5.8.2. Black keys Lowercase letters

5.8.3. White keys Uppercase letters

5.8.4. Blue keys Punctuation Digits Small capital letters Fixed width spaces

5.9. Matrix

5.9.1. Mold for letter forms

5.10. Slug

5.10.1. Assembled line of type being used, and is cast as one single piece

5.11. Justified line of text?

5.11.1. The spaces band increases the space between the words until it is justified

6. Cave Paintings

6.1. Common Findings in Caves

6.1.1. Abstract Patterns

6.1.2. Large animals

6.1.3. Traces of Human Hands

6.2. How Paint Was Created

6.2.1. Water

6.2.2. Plant Juice

6.2.3. Hematite

6.3. Lascaux Cave

6.3.1. Located in France

6.3.2. Lascaux II

6.4. Altamira Cave

6.4.1. Located in Spain

6.4.2. Use of red clay

6.4.3. Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter Maria discovered this cave.

6.5. Chauvet pont d’Arc

6.5.1. Oldest known cave painting site

6.5.2. Eliete Brunell Descamps, Chirstian Hillaire, and Jean Marie Chauvet discovered this site

6.5.3. No debris, 3D effect used, fossilized remains and sticks and stones were used as brushes.

6.6. Why man created cave paintings

6.6.1. To tell stories or recount events that already happened

6.6.2. As instructions to help teach hunting techniques

6.6.3. Magical or religious reasons - if a desired event was painted, it would come true

6.7. First form of communication using symbols and drawings

7. Gutenberg Press

7.1. Johannes Gutenberg

7.1.1. Created metal type

7.1.2. Created oil based ink

7.2. Printing Press

7.2.1. Hand press

7.2.2. Ink is rolled over a raised surface of movable hand-set letters held within a wooden frame

7.2.3. Pressed against a white sheet

7.3. Developed from the Screw Type

7.3.1. Pressing wine grapes and olive seeds

7.4. Experimented with metal typography

7.5. 13th Century

7.5.1. First movable type was created Carved from wood System of printing that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document, i.e. individual letters and punctuation Woodcuts not durable, repeated use broke them New block had to be carved for each new impression

7.5.2. China

7.6. Metal Type

7.6.1. Alloy of lead, tin, and antimony.

7.6.2. Can be reproduced more quickly

7.6.3. Quicker, more durable, and uniform lettering

7.7. Impact on Communication

7.7.1. Perfected script, easier to read

7.7.2. Books were made more rapidly

7.7.3. Current information could be shared locally and around the world

7.7.4. Cost decreased

7.7.5. Demand for books grew, more literacy.

7.7.6. Readers wanted a greater variety of books and more languages

7.7.7. Increased book trade, flourishing paper industry

7.7.8. Expansion of art and science, i.e., the Renaissance

7.8. Major Printing Processes

7.8.1. Still utilized today

7.8.2. Relief printing

7.8.3. Intaglio

7.8.4. Porous

7.8.5. Lithography

8. History of photography

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. "Dark Chamber"

8.1.2. Darkened rooms with a lens inserted into one wall, the scene on the outside get projected into the lens and is reflected on the opposite wall

8.1.3. 17th and 18th century Camera shrunk to the size of a portable box Image was projected onto ground glass

8.2. "Photography"

8.2.1. Sir John Hershel

8.2.2. Greek words for light and writing

8.3. First successful photograph

8.3.1. Joseph Niepce

8.3.2. 1827

8.4. First practical photographic process

8.4.1. Louis Daguerre Daguerreotype Image is reflected onto light-sensitive metal sheet that made a direct positive image Exposure time reduced to half an hour Image made permanent by putting it in salt.

8.5. Calotype process

8.5.1. William Fox Talbot

8.5.2. Subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

8.5.3. Allowed photographer to make duplicates of photographs

8.6. Wet Collodion Process or Wet Plate Process

8.6.1. Archer

8.6.2. Glass plates coated with collodion, a colorless syrupy solution of nitrocellulose in ether. Plates had to be exposed and developed immediately while the plates were still wet

8.6.3. Portable darkrooms

8.7. Dry Plate Process

8.7.1. Richard Maddox, 1871

8.7.2. Use of gelatin to coat plates Gelatin: colorless water soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue

8.8. Eastman

8.8.1. Developed a photographic medium that replaced fragile glass plates with a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls

8.8.2. "You press the button, we do the rest." Photographer sends camera and film to a processing company Company processes film, reloads the camera with a new roll, and returns it to owner for a fee. The Brownie

8.8.3. Eastman Kodak Company

8.9. James Clerk Maxwell

8.9.1. Scottish Physicist

8.9.2. Took the first color photograph

8.10. Edwin Land

8.10.1. Patented invention of instant photography

8.10.2. Came up with a one-step process for developing and printing photographs.

8.11. Muybridge

8.11.1. Paved the way for motion picture photography

8.11.2. English photographer who was known for his work using multiple cameras to capture motion

8.11.3. Hired to settle a debate concerning: Whether or not all four horse's hooves are off the ground at the same time during a gallop Used a series of large cameras placed in a line, each being triggered by a thread as a horse passed by

8.12. Zoopraxiscope

8.12.1. Device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion

9. History of Computers

9.1. Konrad Zuse

9.1.1. Invented first freely programmable computer in 1936

9.2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

9.2.1. Designed the Mark series in 1944 Used by the navy for gunnery and ballistics

9.3. John Preseper Eckert and John Mauckly

9.3.1. Univac First commercial computer, 1951 Universal Automatic Computer

9.4. IBM

9.4.1. International Business Machines

9.4.2. Developed the 18M701 EDPM Computer in 1953

9.4.3. Fortran First high level programming language Mathematical formula translating system Formula Translating System

9.4.4. Floppy Disk/ Memory Disk

9.5. Douglas Engelbart

9.5.1. Invented the Mouse

9.6. ARPAnet

9.6.1. First internet

9.7. Intel

9.7.1. Intel 4004 First single chip microprocessor

9.8. Xerox

9.8.1. Robert Metcalfe; developed first ethernet

9.9. Mircosoft

9.9.1. Bill Gates MS-DOS Computer operating system Packaged with IBM PC Windows Operating system

9.10. Apple

9.10.1. Apple Lisa Introduced in 1983 Personal computer with a GUI GUI- Graphical User Interface Developed by Xerox in 1970's

9.10.2. Apple Macintosh Computer Introduced in 1984