History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Cave Paintings 55,000 B.C.

1.1. Famous Caves

1.1.1. Altamira, Spain

1.1.1.1. Discovered by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter, Maria

1.1.2. Lascaux, France

1.1.2.1. Discovered in 1940

1.2. Creation

1.2.1. Paintbrushes

1.2.1.1. Sticks

1.2.1.2. Stones

1.2.1.3. Leaves

1.2.1.4. Animal hair

1.2.2. Paint

1.2.2.1. Water

1.2.2.2. Plant Juice

1.2.2.3. Animal Blood

1.2.2.4. Soil

1.2.2.5. Charcoal

1.2.2.6. Hematite

2. Cuneiform Circa 30th Century B.C

2.1. Created by Sumerians

2.1.1. Lived in the Sumer region

2.1.2. A theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

2.1.3. Skilled artisans who created vases, bowls, and other types of pottery

2.1.4. Music was an important part of their life

2.2. Created to keep track of business transactions

2.3. Creation

2.3.1. On clay tablets

2.3.1.1. Step 1: Wet the Tablet

2.3.1.2. Step 2: Use a wedge-shaped stylus made from reeds

2.3.1.3. Step 3: Make impressions

2.3.1.4. Step 4: Lay out in the sun to dry

2.4. Began...

2.4.1. A series of pictograms

2.4.2. A wedge-shaped language

2.5. Oldest Cave

2.5.1. Chauvet Pont d'Arc

2.5.1.1. Discovered by Elliete Brunell Deschamps, Jean Marie Chauvet, and Christian Hillaire

3. Hieroglyphics Circa 6th century B.C

3.1. Egypt

3.1.1. Invaded by Persians, Greeks, and Romans

3.1.2. Invaded by French in 1798

3.1.2.1. Found Rosetta Stone while building a fort in Rosetta

3.1.2.1.1. Has 3 languages written on it

3.1.2.1.2. Decoded by Jean Francois Champollion

3.2. Language

3.2.1. Influenced by Cuneiform

3.2.2. Contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

3.2.3. Name derived from Greek

3.2.3.1. "Hiero" means sacred

3.2.3.2. "Glyphic" means engraving

3.2.4. Recorded information about religion and government

3.2.5. Used to communicate in battle

3.2.6. Decorated temples

3.2.6.1. To honor gods and goddesses

3.2.6.2. Described rituals

3.2.7. Written on Papyrus

3.3. Books of the Dead

3.3.1. Contained instructions and spells to help them find their way to the afterlife

4. Phoenician Alphabet Circa 1050 B.C.

4.1. Theories

4.1.1. Variations of Hieroglyphics

4.1.2. Ties with Cuneiform

4.1.3. New Creation

4.2. Language

4.2.1. Simple

4.2.2. Spread by merchants

4.2.3. Disintegrated class divisions between royalty and the common man

4.2.4. Greek alphabet adapted to the Phonecian Alphabet

4.2.4.1. Base of all alphabets

5. The Book Circa 400 A.D.

5.1. Scrolls

5.1.1. Made of sheets glued together

5.1.2. Rolled with wooden rollers at the end

5.2. Codex

5.2.1. Covered and bound collection of a handwritten pages.

5.2.2. Compact

5.2.3. Sturdy

5.2.4. Easier for reference

5.3. Parchment

5.3.1. Made from animal skin

5.4. Creation

5.4.1. Hair and fat was removed

5.4.2. Skin was smoothed out

5.4.3. Hide was soaked in water

5.4.4. Calcium, flour, and salt were added

5.4.5. Skin was stretched out flattened and dried

5.5. Vellum

5.5.1. A finer quality of parchment made from skins of young calves

6. The Gutenberg Press Circa 1450

6.1. Created by Johannes Gutenberg

6.1.1. Encouraged by his love of reading to make the printing press

6.1.2. Also created oil-based ink

6.2. It was a Hand-Press

6.2.1. Ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable hand-set letters held within a wooden frame

6.2.2. The form was then pressed on a sheet of paper

6.2.3. Created with an alloy of lead, tin and anitmony

6.2.4. Used matrices

6.2.4.1. A hard metal punch hammered into a softer copper bar

6.3. Developed from the technology of the screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

6.4. Advantages

6.4.1. Quick

6.4.2. Durable

6.4.3. All letters were uniform

6.5. Impacts

6.5.1. Perfected script and made it easier to read

6.5.2. Books were made more rapidly

6.5.3. Current information could be shared locally and around the world

6.5.4. Cost of books decreased allowing more people to buy them

6.5.5. Book trade began to flourish, as well as industries such as papermaking

6.5.6. Demand for books grew, and the population became more literate

6.5.7. Readers wanted books written in their own languages and a greater variety

6.5.8. Economies became stronger

6.5.9. Art and science began to flourish which led to the beginning of the Renaissance

6.5.10. The Boston Newsletter was the first American news weekly

6.5.10.1. New node

6.6. Also called the Printing Press

6.7. John Fust

6.7.1. The agreement stated that if Gutenberg could not repay the loan with interest after 5 years Fust would get the press, tools, and materials

6.7.1.1. Fust and Schoeffer took the credit

6.8. The Bible was the first book printed

6.9. Printing Processes used today

6.9.1. Relief Printing

6.9.2. Intaglio

6.9.3. Porous

6.9.4. Lithography

7. Paper Circa 2nd century

7.1. Developed by Ts'ai Lun

7.2. Created in China

7.2.1. Was kept secret for 500 years

8. The Linotype machine Circa 17th Century

8.1. Invented by Christopher Sholes and tested by Clephane. Fixed by Mergenthaler.

8.2. Name

8.2.1. It can type a line of type at once

8.3. Use

8.3.1. First commercially installed machine was in The New York Tribune in July 1886.

8.3.2. By 1954, there were 100000 Linotype machines.

8.4. The keyboard

8.4.1. Had 90 characters

8.4.2. There was no shift key

8.4.3. Uppercase letters and lowercase letters were separate

8.4.4. Arranged based on letter frequency so commonly used letters were on the left

8.4.5. Black keys were lowercase

8.4.6. White keys were uppercase

8.4.7. Blue keys were for punctuation, digits, small capital letters, and fixed width spaces

8.5. Used a space band to create a justified line of text

8.6. Stenographers were one of the most important users

9. Photography Started 4th century AD improved in 19th century

9.1. Camera Obscura

9.1.1. Used by Philosophers and scholars as a way to observe light

9.1.2. An optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen.

9.1.3. A darkened room with a convex lens inserted into a wall.

9.2. First Photograph

9.2.1. Joesph Niepe

9.2.2. First Color Photograph

9.2.2.1. James Clerk Maxwell

9.3. Name

9.3.1. Derived from Greek words for Light and Writing

9.4. Photography Processes

9.4.1. Daguerrotype

9.4.1.1. The image was exposed to a light-sensitve metal sheet, which created a direct positive image

9.4.1.2. Exposed for half an hour

9.4.1.3. Then the image was made permanent by immersing it in salt.

9.4.2. Calotype

9.4.2.1. The subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

9.4.2.2. It allowed the making of duplicates and eventually with more experiments the product was improved

9.4.3. Wet Collodion Process or Wet Plate Process

9.4.3.1. Glass plates that were coated were used for the negative so it captured the image when it was briefly exposed to light. (for 2 sec)

9.4.4. Dry Plate Process

9.4.4.1. Glass Plates were coated with the gelatin and briefly exposed to light to capture the image

9.4.5. Roll Film

9.4.5.1. sped up the process of recording multiple images.

9.4.5.1.1. the user could take the picture then send it to the company to do all the work. The company would then send back the camera with a new roll.

9.5. Eastman Kodak Company

9.5.1. The Brownie was created to bring photography to the masses

9.6. Instant Photography

9.6.1. Edwin Land is best known for patenting polarized light filters in 1934 and his invention of instant photography in 1948

9.6.2. A one-step process for developing and printing photographs created the next revolution in photography.

9.7. Muybridge

9.7.1. Paved the way for motion picture photography

9.7.2. Settled the question of whether or not a horses hooves were on the ground during a gallop

9.7.2.1. He used a series of large cameras places in a line, each being triggered by a thread as a horse passed by. After continued experimentations, he had successfully photographed a horse in motion.

9.8. zoopraxiscope

9.8.1. projected a series of image in successive phases of motion

10. Computers Started in the 20th Century

10.1. First computer

10.1.1. Konrad Zuse

10.1.2. 1936

10.2. Mark Series

10.2.1. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

10.2.2. At Harvard

10.2.3. 1944

10.2.4. Used by the us navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations

10.3. First Commercial Computer

10.3.1. Univac

10.3.1.1. Universal automatic computer

10.3.2. John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly in 1951 for the census bureau

10.4. IBM

10.4.1. IBM701 eopm computer 1953

10.4.2. Created first programming Language

10.4.2.1. Fortran made in 1954

10.4.2.1.1. The IBM mathematical formula translating system

10.4.3. Created Floppy disk in 1971

10.5. First Game

10.5.1. Space war in 1962 by Steve Russell and Mit

10.6. Mouse

10.6.1. Douglas Engelbart in 1964

10.6.2. He wanted a more user friendly tool

10.6.3. Because of the tail that connected it to the computer

10.7. First Internet

10.7.1. Arpanet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)

10.7.1.1. To protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

10.8. First ethernet

10.8.1. Robert Metcalfe

10.8.2. Xerox

10.8.3. Created in 1973

10.9. Microsoft

10.9.1. MS-DOS

10.9.1.1. an operating system

10.9.2. Windows operating system created in 1985

10.10. Apple

10.10.1. Apple Lisa

10.10.1.1. First computer with a graphical user interface

10.10.1.1.1. Gui was created by Xerox

10.10.2. Apple Macintosh

10.10.2.1. affordable home computer