The History of Graphic Communications

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The History of Graphic Communications by Mind Map: The History of Graphic Communications

1. hieroglyphics

2. cave painting

3. Cave Paintings are beautiful, detailed, and colorful representations found on the inside walls of caves

3.1. most of the paintings were of large animals, hands, and abstract patterns made from water, plant juice, and blood. They were painted on by brushes made of sticks, small stones, leaves, and hair

3.2. two of the most famous caves are in Lascaux, France and Altamira, Spain. The oldest is Chauvet Pont d' Arc

3.3. cave paintings were said to be created for story telling, instructional and visual aids, and magical or religious reasons

3.4. no one knows who discovered Lascaux, but the ones who discovered Altamira were Marcelin Sanz de Sautuola and daughter Maria. A group of people discovered Chauvet Pont d' Arc and their names were Eliette Brunell Deschamps, Christian Hillarie, and Jean Marie Chauvet

4. Cuneiform is the ancient writing of the Summerians

4.1. cuneiform was used to keep track of all the business transactions

4.2. it was made by pressing with rods made with reeds on clay tablets

4.3. it began the series of pictographs

4.4. more complex words needed complicated, long imprints or indents in the clay

5. Hieroglyphics was influenced by the concept of writing word from the Sumerians cuneiform. They are a formal writing system made up of logographic and alphabetic elements

5.1. the word hieroglyphics is derived from the two Greek words hiero and glyphic, meaning sacred writing

5.2. hieroglyphics were used for religion, government, for the military leaders to communicate in battle, and to show respect to their gods and goddesses

5.3. it was written on papyrus, which is a substrate made by placing wet reeds crisscross over each other, flattened and dried, rubbed with flat stones until it was smooth

5.4. the famous Rosetta Stone was found by the french under the charge of Napoleon Bonaparte. It head three languages, hieroglyphics, Greek. and Demotic.

6. cuneiform

7. The phonetic alphabet's origin is unknown, but some say that it is a variation of hieroglyphics, cuneiform, or an independent creation. In the phonetic alphabet one sign represents one sound

7.1. it was easy to learn, therfor spread very eaisly, and used as the first widespread script. the phonetic alphabet gave rise to other alphabets such as Latin

7.2. there were two forms. a rigid, formal script that was used for important and official manuscripts, and a quick informal style used for routine writings

7.3. a serif is a finishing of stroke, originated when someone was carving words into a stone, making the words more legible. the baseline is where most letters sit, and the descender is the part of a letter that goes under the baseline

8. the phonetic alphabet

9. Books were made to replace scrolls in such a way that it was easier to read and make

9.1. scrolls were either long, continuous pieces of papyrus, or separate sheets glued together, and were then simply rolled up, or with wooden rollers at each end

9.2. then came the codex, which was a covered and bound collection of handwritten pages with advantages such as compactness, sturdiness, and ease of referance

9.3. parchment was a substrate made from an animal skin such as sheep, goat, and cow, where the hair and fat were removed, the skin smoothed out soaked in water, then calcium, flour, and salt, finally it was stretched and dried. This made it very durable

9.4. monastic monks then made books, called iluminated manuscripts, where the text and the borders were adorned with elaborte illustrations and ornamentation

10. illuminated manuscript

11. Modern book printing was introduced by a man named Johannes Gutenberg

11.1. Gutenberg was inspired to make better books because of his love for reading and his father's work as a merchant and goldsmith

11.2. he created his metal type out of an alloy of lead, tin, and aluminum that melted at low temperatures. This was a much more durable

11.3. printing presses influenced the making of many other things, such as paper, which was developoed in China by Ts'ai Lun.

11.4. the first book printed was the Bible

11.5. Gutenberg impacted communication in many ways. He perfected script, books were made rapidly, current information could be shared locally and around the world, book cost decreased and therefor the demand grew, books were written in many different languages, trade flourished, economies became stronger, and brought us into the Renaissance

11.6. print techniques we still use today are relief printing, intaglio, porous, and lithography

12. the printing press

13. The Linotype machine and the typewriter were both results of Clephane search for an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies

13.1. Mergenthaler was Celphane's goal, but it was Mergenthaler that suggested casting type in metal rather than papier-mache

13.2. this machine set the type mechanically rather than by hand. The first one was installed in New York

13.3. the linotype machine had a 90 character keyboard with separate keys for uppercase letters, due to the lack of a shift key. The arrangement of the this keyboard was by letter frequency. The English alphabet was on there twice, black keys were lowercase, white keys were uppercase. Then there were separate blue keys for punctuation, digits, small capital letters, and fixed width spaces

14. linotype machine

15. Sir John Hershel developed the word photography from the Greek words light and writing

15.1. the first camera was the camera obscura which was a darkened chamber or room. The camera was then shrunk to the size of a portable box

15.2. the first successful photograph was created by Joseph Niepce in 1827. The first practical photographic process was called the Daquerrotype, created by Louis Daquerrotype

15.3. the Caloype process was created by William Fox Tabot. This is where the subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative. This is the process that is the basis of modern photography

15.4. the next process was created by Archer, which was called the Wet Plate Process. The next process, and the first dry process was created by Richard Maddox

15.5. Eastman then established the Eastman Kodak Company with the motto "your press the button, we do the rest". The first camera to enter the public was the Brownie

15.6. the first color photograph was taken by James Clerk Maxwell. The invention of instant photography was by Edwin Land.

16. brownie camera

17. Computers are a very important part of life