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Motion by Mind Map: Motion
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Motion

Acceleration

the rate of change of the velocity

indicates any change in the velocity vector

change in direction

increase in speed

decrease in speed

simultaneous change in speed and direction

To find it:

the change in velocity divided by the corresponding time interval

meters per second squared

Reading graphs

net force and velocity point in opposite directions=slowing down

Net force and velocity point in same direction= speeding up

Straight-line motion= acceleration is wither same direction as velocity or in the opposite direction to the velocity

Position

States where an object is located

x-, y-, and z-coordinates

Point of reference in relation to origin

Direction

Distance

Displacement

Definition:The change of the position vector

How to find it: The final position vector minus the initial position vector

Remember: does not necessarily equal the total distance traveled

Velocity

depends on displacement and time interval

Average velocity

does not reveal information about the motion during the time interval

product of the vector, the displacement, and a positive scalar, the inverse of the time interval

x-axis, represented on the graph as x(t)

Instantaneous velocity

a vector

magnitude is the speed

direction of motion

used to calculate the displacement of the object during a very short interval

Reading Graphs

sloping portions on graphs indicate=movement

a horizontal position=position has not changed

steeper the graph=faster speed

sign of the slope indicates direction of motion, positive slope, positive slope=motion in the +x-direction, negative slope=motion in the -x-direction

Newton's second law

rate of change of the velocity is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of th object

net force is constant the acceleration is also constant

Applying to problems

Decide what objects will have Newton's second law applied to them

Identify all the external forces acting on that object

Draw a FBD to show all the forces acting on the object

Choose a coordinate system

find the net force by adding the forces as vectors

Relate the net force to acceleration

Relate the acceleration to the change in the velocity vector during a time interval of interest

Constant net force

equations

change of velocity is equal to the final velocity minus the initial velocity = acceleration times the change in time

refer to page 108 and 109

Visualization

Motion diagrams

position

velocity

Acceleration

Free Fall

No forces act on an object other than the gravitation force that makes the object fall

Air resistance

neglible

massive objects are harder to accelerate

More mass=more inertia

the acceleration of an object in free fall is the vector of "g" regardless of the object's mass

9.80 meters per second squared

Motion of projectiles

an object moves in the xy-[plane with constant acceleration then both a of x and a of y are constant

Projectiles

objects in free fall

motion takes place in vertical plane

Angle of elevation

angle of initial velocity above the horizontal

Trajectory

path it takes in air

Apparent Weight

the feeling of "weightless"

elevator example

upwards the weight will be great than the true weight

downwards the weight will be less than the true weight

Air resistance

Drag force

increases as speed increases

the larger the surface area the more air is needed to be pushed out of the way

Terminal velocity

the acceleration is zero

Terminal speed

the magnitude of the terminal velocity is:

depends on:, size, shape, mass

Vectors

Positions and displacements

Problem solving

Vectors in different direction, Subtraction: is to add its opposite, has same magnitude but opposite direction

Multiplication, multiplyig a vector by the scalar -1 reverses the vector's direction while magnitude is unaffected

Subtraction : used to find displacement

Words of the Day

Forestall

to predict what is ahead

Modus operandi

"mode of operation"

Ne Plus ultra

the most profound degree

Ithaca

the journey

Panacea

cures

Explore

To investigate systematically; examine

Red Herring

something intended to divert attention from the real problem or matter at hand

Mash-Up

combining data from more than one source into a single integrated tool

Helpful terms

Interval

The amount of time between two specified instants, events, or states

Slope

rise/run

Mass

measure of its inertia

Weight

is the magnitude of the gravitational force acting on it

Relationship: velocity and Acceleration

Velocity is the change in position

Acceleration is the change of velocity