"The Theory of Bumps" by Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich in a Mind Map Format.

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BUMPS by Mind Map: BUMPS

1. BUMP 1 Low Key Responses

1.1. Characteristics: ~ Silent or minimal verbal responses ~ Quick and quiet... they don't stop the flow of the lesson ~ They don't invite escalation ~ Focus is on the behaviour, not the student.

1.2. 1. Proximity

1.2.1. The teacher moves towards a misbehaving student. Be aware of your body language and what it conveys. Do not be hostile by invading personal space as you want to avoid escalating the behaviour.

1.3. 2. Touch

1.3.1. A quick light touch on the forearm or shoulder by the teacher done in such a way that it is not noticed by other students. Ensure this is allowed by the school policy on touch beforehand.

1.4. 3. The Look

1.4.1. Communicates to the student that their behaviour is inappropriate. Scan the classroom constantly to ensure you know what is happening and to address potential disruptions.

1.5. 4. Student's Name

1.5.1. Reminds students that the teacher is aware of what is going on in the classroom. Be aware of the tone of voice used. Be firm and from a place of compassion, not hostility. When used to greet or select students it is an effective way of winning them over.

1.6. 5. The Gesture

1.6.1. Usually a hand or facial response that communicates the expected behaviour. Can be used in conjunction with other BUMP 1 responses. Be aware of cultural differences.

1.7. 6. The Pause

1.7.1. Communicates to the students that the teacher is aware of what is going on in the classroom. Gives time to think before responding. Used with other low key responses.

1.8. 7. Ignoring

1.8.1. Will usually not get the desired effect of the teacher's attention that the student wants. Ignore the student if it does not detract from continuing the lesson or from others learning.

2. BUMP 3 & 4 Making Choices & Consequences

2.1. Used when student has continued misbehaviour despite several low key redirections. Having a preventative visual queuing of chances (such as "1,2,3 Magic" may help deescalate behaviour).

2.2. Making choices allows students to take responsibility for their actions. Example: "You may choose to continue working together quietly or separate and work at your own desks quietly."

2.3. Choice must be: ~ Logical ~ Immediate ~ Not an ultimatum ~ Not seen as a punishment ~ Able to be followed through ~ Said in a positive or neutral tone

2.4. 1. Quietly and calmly give the choice to the student, not allowing others to get involved, allowing the student to "save face". 2. If the student makes the desired choice on their own, then this is the end at Bump 3. 3. Bump 4 begins if the teacher must up the ante and follow through with the "or".

3. BUMP 6 Informal Logical Contracts

3.1. Used when a students behaviour has not improved despite several redirections, consequences and home contact.

3.2. By shifting responsibility to the student it allows for the student and teacher to work together to develop a positive plan of action. This is a chance to reestablish a more positive working relationship (which may be what the student wanted in the first place).

3.3. 1. Discuss necessity of informal contract with the student's parents. 2. Maintain a record of incidents and telephone calls with home. This will illuminate any patterns of action (times of day, students involved, following events outside of school, etc). 3. Before chatting with student, decide on three behaviours you would like to stop. Focus on specific actions. Review classroom rules and expectations. 4. Discuss logical consequences to this student and that they may be different to rules already established with others. 5. Inquire about positive reinforcement opportunities to employ at school and at home for improvement of behaviour. 6. Plan a separate tracking sheet to record frequency of compliance as well as non-compliance. 7. Schedule a meeting to review goals.

3.4. Be consistent with consequences. If there is not sufficient improvement then the move to a formal contract should be discussed.

4. BUMP 2 Squaring Off

4.1. Used when low key responses fail to stop the behaviour. The behaviour is now interrupting the lesson.

4.2. 1. Stop teaching 2. Face the student (squaring off) 3. Give verbal request to stop misbehaviour 4. Thank student for compliance 5. Return to lesson

5. BUMP 5 Defusing the Power Struggle

5.1. Used when a student openly vies for power of the classroom.

5.2. There may be many factors behind a student's behaviour such as domestic strife or lack of sleep. Remember to remain calm and address the behaviour, not the student. Other students may need to be assigned tasks to complete on their own while you deal with the misbehaving student.

5.3. 1. Stop teaching 2. Square off 3. Take deep breaths 4. Deal with any allies first 5. Do or say something to shift the locus of control 6. Pause and allow student to save face 7. Describe the situation and ask that the disruption not continue 8. Up the ante and state your consequence 9. Bring closure to the interaction with an appropriate statement such as "thank you" or "I appreciate it" // or following through with consequence.

6. BUMP 7, 8, 9 & 10 Formal Contracts, Informal and Formal Suspensions

6.1. Used as a final response by school staff and parents to assist the student to take action about whether or not to be a part of the school's learning environment.

6.2. What is it? ~ A written document signed by the participating parties: teacher, student, parents, administrator, and other support staff.

6.3. To work it requires all parts to agree to give support and reinforcement.

6.4. Prior to making the contract, the school team should review the teacher's: ~ Record of incidents ~ Analysis of behaviours ~ Strategies employed ~ Behaviour tracking sheets from Bump 6.

6.5. A formal contract removes the teacher from the position of controller to one of the implementer of the terms of the contract. This frees the teacher to concentrate on the positive aspects of the student's behaviour. Consistency to the contract is crucial. Maintaining strong communication with all involved parties is central to the success of the student.