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2: Skin, bones, joints & skeletal muscles by Mind Map: 2: Skin, bones, joints &
skeletal muscles
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2: Skin, bones, joints & skeletal muscles

Skin

Components

Epidermis

Dermis

Functions

protection

hydroregulation

thermoregulation

sensory reception

absorption of UV & lipid soluble substances

synthesis of vitamin D

excretion of waste material

communication of emotions

Tention lines

due to patterns of arrangement of collagen fibres in the dermis. Incision made along skin tension lines heal with minimum of scarring

Horizontal in trunk

Longitudinale in limbs

Rule of 9's

Head & neck 9%

Right upper limb 9%

left upper limb 9%

Anterior trunk 18%

Posterior trunk & buttocks 18%

right lower limb 18%

left lower limb 18%

perineum 1%

Fascia

definition

types, superficial facia, loose CT, beneath the skin, binding it to deep facia, filled with fat, contains, small blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels, function, conserves body heat, soft medium or the passage of blood vessels, lymph, and nerves, deep facia, Tough & inelastic fibrous membrane, deep to superficial facia, keeps the underlying structures in position, provides extra surface for muscle attachment

Bones

Types of bones

Long bones, 2 ends (epiphysis), made of cancellous bone, covered with hyaline cartilage, filled with red bone marrow, shaft (diaphysis), periosteum, Dense & white, layers, Fibrous (outer), Cellular (inner), attaches tendons to bones and carry blood vessels, cortex, compact bones, bears mechanical stress, medullary cavity, Filled with, red bone marrow at birth, yellow bone marrow in adults

Short bones

Flat bones

Irregular bones

Sesamoid bones

surface marking of bones

Linear elevation, Line, Ridge, Crest

Rounded elevation, Tubercle, Tuberosity, Trochanter, Protuberance, Malleolus

Sharp elevation, Spine of spinous process, Styloid process

Expanded ends for articulation, Head, Condyle, Epicondyle

Small flat area for articulation, Facet

Depressions, Notch, Groove or sulcus, Fossa

Openings, Fissure, Foramen, Canal, Meatus

Function of bones

support

protection

movement

mineral storage

hematopoiesis

Joints

fibrous joints

bones held together by dense regular connective tissue

sutures, connected by short strands of dense CT, synarthroses (no movement)

syndesmoses, connected by ligaments only, amphiarthroses (slight movement)

gomphoses, peg in socket with short ligaments, synarthroses

cartilaginous joints

primary, hyaline cartilage, no movement

secondary, fibrocartilage, slight movement

synovial joints

- Freely movable- synovial fluid and cavity- articular cartilage- articular capsule (fibrous and synovial membrane layers)

plane joint

hinge

pivot

condylar

ellipsoidal

saddle

ball & socket

Skeletal muscles

Functions

Motion

Heat production

Posture and body support

Consists of

Ends, Origin, Insertion

Parts, Fleshy (belly), Fibrous, tendon, aponeurosis

Connective tissue covering

Epimysium

Perimysium

Endomysium