2: Skin, bones, joints & skeletal muscles

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2: Skin, bones, joints & skeletal muscles by Mind Map: 2: Skin, bones, joints & skeletal muscles

1. Skin

1.1. Components

1.1.1. Epidermis

1.1.2. Dermis

1.2. Functions

1.2.1. protection

1.2.2. hydroregulation

1.2.3. thermoregulation

1.2.4. sensory reception

1.2.5. absorption of UV & lipid soluble substances

1.2.6. synthesis of vitamin D

1.2.7. excretion of waste material

1.2.8. communication of emotions

1.3. Tention lines

1.3.1. Horizontal in trunk

1.3.2. Longitudinale in limbs

1.4. Rule of 9's

1.4.1. Head & neck 9%

1.4.2. Right upper limb 9%

1.4.3. left upper limb 9%

1.4.4. Anterior trunk 18%

1.4.5. Posterior trunk & buttocks 18%

1.4.6. right lower limb 18%

1.4.7. left lower limb 18%

1.4.8. perineum 1%

1.5. Fascia

1.5.1. definition

1.5.2. types

1.5.2.1. superficial facia

1.5.2.1.1. loose CT

1.5.2.1.2. beneath the skin, binding it to deep facia

1.5.2.1.3. filled with fat

1.5.2.1.4. contains

1.5.2.1.5. function

1.5.2.2. deep facia

1.5.2.2.1. Tough & inelastic fibrous membrane

1.5.2.2.2. deep to superficial facia

1.5.2.2.3. keeps the underlying structures in position

1.5.2.2.4. provides extra surface for muscle attachment

2. Bones

2.1. Types of bones

2.1.1. Long bones

2.1.1.1. 2 ends (epiphysis)

2.1.1.1.1. made of cancellous bone

2.1.1.1.2. covered with hyaline cartilage

2.1.1.1.3. filled with red bone marrow

2.1.1.2. shaft (diaphysis)

2.1.1.2.1. periosteum

2.1.1.2.2. cortex

2.1.1.2.3. medullary cavity

2.1.2. Short bones

2.1.3. Flat bones

2.1.4. Irregular bones

2.1.5. Sesamoid bones

2.2. surface marking of bones

2.2.1. Linear elevation

2.2.1.1. Line

2.2.1.2. Ridge

2.2.1.3. Crest

2.2.2. Rounded elevation

2.2.2.1. Tubercle

2.2.2.2. Tuberosity

2.2.2.3. Trochanter

2.2.2.4. Protuberance

2.2.2.5. Malleolus

2.2.3. Sharp elevation

2.2.3.1. Spine of spinous process

2.2.3.2. Styloid process

2.2.4. Expanded ends for articulation

2.2.4.1. Head

2.2.4.2. Condyle

2.2.4.3. Epicondyle

2.2.5. Small flat area for articulation

2.2.5.1. Facet

2.2.6. Depressions

2.2.6.1. Notch

2.2.6.2. Groove or sulcus

2.2.6.3. Fossa

2.2.7. Openings

2.2.7.1. Fissure

2.2.7.2. Foramen

2.2.7.3. Canal

2.2.7.4. Meatus

2.3. Function of bones

2.3.1. support

2.3.2. protection

2.3.3. movement

2.3.4. mineral storage

2.3.5. hematopoiesis

3. Joints

3.1. fibrous joints

3.1.1. sutures

3.1.1.1. connected by short strands of dense CT

3.1.1.2. synarthroses (no movement)

3.1.2. syndesmoses

3.1.2.1. connected by ligaments only

3.1.2.2. amphiarthroses (slight movement)

3.1.3. gomphoses

3.1.3.1. peg in socket with short ligaments

3.1.3.2. synarthroses

3.2. cartilaginous joints

3.2.1. primary

3.2.1.1. hyaline cartilage

3.2.1.2. no movement

3.2.2. secondary

3.2.2.1. fibrocartilage

3.2.2.2. slight movement

3.3. synovial joints

3.3.1. plane joint

3.3.2. hinge

3.3.3. pivot

3.3.4. condylar

3.3.5. ellipsoidal

3.3.6. saddle

3.3.7. ball & socket

4. Skeletal muscles

4.1. Functions

4.1.1. Motion

4.1.2. Heat production

4.1.3. Posture and body support

4.2. Consists of

4.2.1. Ends

4.2.1.1. Origin

4.2.1.2. Insertion

4.2.2. Parts

4.2.2.1. Fleshy (belly)

4.2.2.2. Fibrous

4.2.2.2.1. tendon

4.2.2.2.2. aponeurosis

4.3. Connective tissue covering

4.3.1. Epimysium

4.3.2. Perimysium

4.3.3. Endomysium