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Macromolecules by Mind Map: Macromolecules

1. Carbohydrates

1.1. Monomer- Monosaccharide

1.2. Elements:

1.2.1. C (Carbon), H (Hydrogen), and O (Oxygen) In a 1:2:1 ratio

1.3. Functions:

1.3.1. Energy source

1.3.2. Energy storage Short term

1.3.3. Structure

1.4. Example:

1.4.1. Sugars Starch Stores sugars in plants' root structures Glycogen Stores sugars in animals' muscle tissue Classified by number of Carbon atoms Names for sugars usually end in "ose" Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose

1.4.2. Polysaccharides Long strings of repeated carbohydrate monomers Cellulose (Fiber) Keeps the excretory system functioning regularly Humans cannot digest it Found in plants Chitin (Exoskeleton) Found in fungus

2. Lipids

2.1. Monomer- Triglycerides

2.2. Elements:

2.2.1. C (Carbon), H (Hydrogen), and O (Oxygen) Disproportionate number of C's and H's (more of them) This is a hydrocarbon

2.3. Functions:

2.3.1. Energy storage Long term because it weighs less

2.3.2. Cushion

2.3.3. Insulation Helps to maintain body temperature Example- blubber

2.3.4. Insoluble Because the hydrocarbon tails are non-polar This is called being hydrophobic

2.3.5. Structure Dehydration Synthesis/ Condensation Reaction Needs energy which comes from fatty acids "Don't put your lipids on my fatty acids!" Enzymes cause the chemical reactions

2.4. Examples:

2.4.1. Fats Saturated Fats All Carbon atoms are bonded to Hydrogen atoms No Carbons are bonded to Carbons Characteristics: Example: Unsaturated Fats Carbon to Carbon bonds in the fatty acid chains Not fully saturated with Hydrogen Characteristics: Example: Trans Fats Unsaturated fat that has been partially hydrogenated Characteristics: Example: New node

2.4.2. Oils

2.4.3. Waxes

2.4.4. Phospholipids

2.4.5. Steroids


3. Proteins (Polypeptide)

3.1. Monomer- Amino Acids

3.1.1. All look the same except for one variable group that changes the properties. In this case "R" being the variable.

3.1.2. There are 20 of them.

3.1.3. Get chained into a polymer Held together by peptide bonds

3.2. Stuctures:

3.2.1. Primary Structure A sequence of amino acids

3.2.2. Second Structure Chains coil or fold

3.2.3. Teritiary Structure Atrraction between alpha and beta helixes

3.2.4. Quaternary Structure One or more chains bonded

3.2.5. The structures must be the right shape to do their jobs.

3.2.6. Denaturing (unfolding) can occur. Can be caused by change in temperature or pH levels.

3.3. Functions:

3.3.1. Multipurpose molecule Build Protect Send chemical messages And many others

3.4. Examples:

3.4.1. Enzymes Pepsin Helps in chemical reactions

3.4.2. Hormones Insulin

3.4.3. Movement

3.5. Elements:

3.5.1. C (Carbon), H (Hydrogen), O (Oxygen), and N (Nitrogen)


4. Nucleic Acids

4.1. Monomer- Nucelotides

4.1.1. 3 Parts: Base Pentose sugar 5 Carbons Ribose in RNA Deoxyribose in DNA Phosphate Group

4.2. Elements:

4.2.1. C (Carbon), H (Hydrogen), O (Oxygen), N (Nitrogen), and P (Phosphorus)

4.3. Functions:

4.3.1. Transmitting hereditary information Through genes Passed from parent to offspring The codes (Ex. ACTGGTCATTG) build proteins New node

4.3.2. Storing hereditary information

4.4. Examples:

4.4.1. DNA (Deoxyribolnuleic Acid) Two chains Form a double helix

4.4.2. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) Single chain