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Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology
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Learning Design and Technology

Reflection: During this course, we have explored the stages of instructional design--mainly the analysis stage and the design stage. We have developed a project proposal, a questionnaire, a flowchart, a storyboard and a prototype, wrote learning objectives and assessment strategies collaboratively as a group. The process of actually doing it by ourselves help us understand the procedure on a more practical level. On the other hand, I have read the suggested materials in the course and searched for additional resources, which include the history of instructional design and technology, and many other models for instructional design such as the events of instruction, multimedia learning theory, 4C/ID Model, Learning by Doing Model (by several authors), Resource-based learning model (several authors) and Constructivist Learning Environment, and also issues on Web 2.0 and education. These theories and models have enlightened me on instructional design from different perspectives. I have also learnt from Bigg's SOLO taxomony and constructive alignment in writing learning objectives and designing assessment strategies; read materials on learning theories; and explored examples of learning technology products such as educational games and learning objects (They are all presented under the specific subjects) These all have helped me to form an overall understanding of instructional design.

Key Frameworks

Multimedia learning theory(Mayer, 2003)

R E. Mayer(2003) The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning and Instruction 13 (2003) 125-139 In this journal article, the research shows four effects of multimedia learning: (a) a multimedia effect-in which students learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone-in both book-based and computer-based environments, (b) a coherence effect- in which students learn more deeply when extraneous material is excluded rather than included-in both book-based and computer-based environment, (c) a spatial contiguity effect- in which students learn more deeply when printed words are placed near rather that far from corresponding pictures- in both book-based and computer-based environments, and (d) a personalization effect-in which students learn more deeply when words are presented in conversational rather that formal style- both in computer-based environments containing spoken words and those using printed words. The picture in the article is used to illustrate the framework for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning.

Seven Principles on multimedia learning

The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning

4C/ID Model(Clark & Croock. 2002)

J.J. Va Merrienboer, R.E.Clark, & M.B. de Crook (2002) Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID Model.  ETR&D 50(2), 39-64 The authors presented a four-component model for instructional design, namely (a) learning tasks (b) supportive information (c) Just-in-time (JIT) information and (d) part-task practice. as illustrated in the picture. The focus is on complex learning, which is always involved with achieving integrated sets of learning goals— multiple performance objectives, as explained by the author.

4C/ID Model

Learning by doing model

Schank: case-based reasoning

Kolb: Learning Cycle

Dufour: Learning by doing

Resource-based learning

Churchill, 2006; Oliver & Herrington , 2001; Hill & Hannafin, 2001

Jonassen: Constructivist learning environment

Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215—239). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Jonassen: Constructivist learning environment

Learning Design Models

Linear Model

Spiral Model

Top-to-Bottom Model

Oval Model

Rapid Prototyping Model



Needs Assessment

User/Audience Analysis

System/Technology Analysis

Content Analysis

Feasibility Analysis

Risk Analysis

Project Proposal


Define a Goal(s)

Conduct Instructional Analysis (Performance, Content, Task Analysis), eg. Task Analysis, Analysis of job description; Analysis of job-related documents; Observation of people at work, directly or via recording; Discussion with people about specific jobs; Extrapolation of tasks from a customer’s training need.

Analyze Learners and Context

Write Learning Objective, John Bigg's SOLO Taxonomy

Develop Assessment strategy, Drill and practice-Multiple choice, True false, Fill in the blank, short answer, drag and drop Essays Problem-solving Tasks, John Bigg's Constructive Alignment

Develop Instructional Strategy

Arrange Instructional Events, Gagne's nine events of instruction

Develop a set of Flowcharts

Develop Storyboards

Write Design Specification Document

Develop a prototype, Tool we used: Axure RP Pro




The History of Instructional Design and Technology

Part1: A history of instructional media

Reiser, R.A.(2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part 1: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64 This article informs me the history of instructional media in the United States from the first decade of the 20th century when the school museums came into existence. Then followed the Visual Instruction Movement and Instructional Films, the Audiovisual Instruction Movement and Instructional Radio, and the interruption of World War two. After that, the theories of communication focused on the communication process, involving a sender and a receiver of a message, and the medium, through which the message is sent. These models indicated more attention should be put on the communication process. After that is the instructional television. From 1950s on, the appearance of computer has brought great changes in instructional media. The interactive capability and multimedia capability of the computer has brought about many innovations. More recently, the use of Internet has gained more interest. The author thinks changes are likely to come about more slowly than most media enthusiasts curently predict at that time.

Part2: A history of instructional design

  Reiser, R.A.(2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part 2: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64   As the second part of a history of instructional design and technology, this article focuses on the history of instructional design. The author revealed that the origin of instructional design was actually from World War Two, when psychoogists and educators were trying to develop training materials for military services. Then the development of  instructional design was largely influenced by the popularization of behavioral. After that came the Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement, and Gagne published The Conditions of Learning, in which he described nine events of instruction, which has a large influence till today. From the 1990s, views were changed again by the growing interest in constructivism. We can see that instructional design is actually influenced by theories on how people learn. And rapid prototyping is another trend that has had an effect on instructional design practices in recent years.


Instructional Designer

Project Manager

Interface Designer

Multimedia Designer


Project Manager

Instructional Designer

Interface Designer

Multimedia Designer


Social Web and LD

D. Churchill (2007) Web 2.0 and Possibilities for Educational Applications. Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29. This article first introduced several types of popular web 2.0 tools: Blog, wiki, RSS, social spaces, the Internet as a platform, then the wide spread of Web 2.0 was examined. Last and the most important, the indication of Web 2.0 in education was proposed. By then resources on this topic wasn't that much, and the author mentioned two studies on exploring the educational applications of Web 2.0. The first is a case study of a graduate university class using a blog-based environment to support teaching and learning. And the second one was planned to explore the benefits of a social space that supports the shaing of resources for teachers. At the end of the article, the author also mentioned the promise of mobile and handheld technologies in education, which as present is a commonly discussed topic.



Social Bookmarking

Social Repositories

RSS Feeds and Aggregators


Social Networking

Mobile Web 2.0

Patten, B., Sanchez, I.A. & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructivist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers & Education, 46(3),294-308

Learning Technology Products


Multimedia Packages

Educational Digital Video

Special Agent OSO is a series of animation in Disney Chanel. OSO, the character, is a teddy bear who helps children with simple tasks, such as making a bird feed of taking the bus to school in the link. The episode is usually made up of 4 components: OSO's own training excersise, OSO's special assignment to help one child with something, three special steps given by Paw Pilot to help OSO with the special assignment, and sometimes there's interaction with audience. (Reference:

Educational Websites

This is a website for kids' physics learning. First it presents contents in each section and followed by a quiz.

Blended learning packages

Assessment Systems

Learning Objects

PhET is a website providing learning objects and games on studying in various subjects. The link is to an example of physics game of forces and motion.

Educational Games

The link is to the webpage of smallcampus, the part for primary school students within the website of HKEdCity. It provides learning resources and games in Chinese, Math, English and Elementary Knowledge for kids.

Educational Electronic Devices

Podcast, iTunesU, E-books

Learning Theories