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Emerging Technologies 2009 by Mind Map: Emerging Technologies 2009
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Emerging Technologies 2009

Adult Education

Mobiles Ruben Palazuelos

What is it? “Mobile” is commonly used in reference to a cellular phone or handheld device. The long-range electronic device is primarily used for voice and data communication. Features and services vary greatly depending on the device, carrier and service plan and include: voice communication, text messaging, e-mail, internet access, gaming, Bluetooth, photo and video camera, multimedia sharing, music and radio player, GPS, mobile applications support, two way radio, among others. Who is currently using it or how might it be used? The ownership and use of a mobile device is quite common nowadays, compared to say ten years ago. Having a cell phone is not only ordinary, but our reliance on them has become widespread. As mobiles become more readily available to the public regardless of demographics (due to affordability, variety and accessibility), they progressively replace other means of communication and resources of information. Although the individual’s use of a mobile varies from person to person, it has become a general necessity/luxury. What are the downsides? Reliability, quality of the physical device. Support, availability of applications. Quality of mobile operating system. Constantly changing technology may be challenging. Costs (device, applications, service, etc.) Potential privacy issues may arise. (Hacking?) Design: ergonomics, comfort, satisfaction, engagement, etc. Where does the report say it is going and where do you think it is going? The Horizon Report considers the use of mobiles as continuously and rapidly spreading. As the capabilities of mobile devices expand, the popularity and applications increase. I agree that we are seeing a transition from laptop to handheld. I believe the evolution of mobile devices has included transitioning from cell phone to smart phone, due in great part to the fashionable BlackBerry, the trendy iPhones and the endless multimedia, multi-tasking capabilities of all phones that have followed. What are the implications for teaching and learning? By allowing internet connectivity and supporting infinite applications, the implications for teaching and learning are endless. Access to information is made easier and more personal. Collaboration and participation is more engaging. Exercises and practices are incredibly interactive. In general, an application, a resource and support can be easily made available for virtually any topic.  

Cloud Computing Michael Wagenheim John Walsh

1. What is it? Cloud Computing is networked computers that distribute processing power, applications, and large systems among many computers. It is the de-centralizing of computing, moving IT applications and infrastructure from ownership to out-sourcing. Cloud computing is a relatively new term but the idea of providing computing over the internet has been around for a long time. Now utility computing has become a reality. Cloud technology lets anyone use applications, storage and resources through the internet, these are provided as services by different vendors, some for free, some for fees. It allows people to use these expensive resources without owing them, the applications and storage and power live out in the cloud of the internet. Cloud-based applications do not run on a single computer; instead they are spread over a distributed cluster, using storage space and computing resources from many available machines as needed. “The cloud” denotes any group of computers used in this way; it is not tied to a particular location or owner, though many companies have proprietary clouds. many of the technologies we are using for this course utilitze cloud computing technology, skype, doodle, mindmeister all use cloud computing technology. (1) What all these cloud computing services have in common, though, is that all are delivered over the Internet, on demand, from massive data centers.(2) 2. Who is currently using it or how might it be used? There are three types or layers of cloud computing. Each layer offers different services to different groups of users. The first layer is the application layer known as software as a service (SaaS). 69% of online Americans use webmail services, store data online, or use software programs such as word processing applications whose functionality is located on the web. (3) The second layer is the infrastructure layer known as platform as a service (PaaS). This level of service is used mainly by groups of users working on projects together, development teams, businesses with many remote users, basically any group of people doing things together. The final layer is the utility layer known as the infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Beside the cloud providers, IaaS users come from all types of businesses like IBM, Cisco, ViVox and Nielsen Ratings Service. The service is used to make connections and provide web services to businesses and academics. 3. What are the downsides? The cloud does have certain drawbacks. Unlike traditional software packages that can be installed on a local computer, backed up, and are available as long as the operating system supports them, cloud- based applications are services offered by companies and service providers in real time. Entrusting your work and data to the cloud is also a commitment of trust that the service provider will continue to be there, even in face of changing market and other conditions. (1) Below is a list of obstacles cloud computing is facing today. Availability of Service Data Lock-In Data Confidentiality and Auditability Data Transfer Bottlenecks FedExing Performance Scalable Storage Bugs in Large-Scale Scaling Quickly Reputation Fate Sharing Software Licensing (7) 4. Where does the report say it is going and where do you think it is going? The report does not make any future predictions for cloud computing. I believe that cloud computing will grow. I don’t see it replacing the PC, but certainly competing with it and becoming a standard. The cloud already offers better reliability than on-premises systems. (99.9%) A study of the Fortune 1000 companies show their on-premises systems only had a 94% network uptime rating. (6) The cloud providers are continuously working on improving security and once the cloud offers a guaranteed secure environment along with a near perfect uptime rating more users will abandon their centralized systems and venture into the cloud. Cloud applications will have the capability to live on the client side, infrastructure software will run on virtual machines, and there will probably be improvements to bandwidths and costs that will make datacenters more mainstream and available. 5. What are the implications for teaching and learning? Academe will now be able to take advantage of resources that have been overpriced and unavailable, performing tasks that have traditionally required site licensing, installation, and maintenance of individual software packages. Email, word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, collaboration, media editing, and more can all be done inside a web browser, while the software and files are housed in the cloud. (1) The present class is a perfect example, cloud computing enriches the content through Skype, Mind Meister, even the use of our emails has become essential in the pedagogical process. An internet connection will make most applications available to any student, anywhere. (1) 2009 Horizon Report. (2009) One Year or Less: Cloud Computing. The Web Version. Accessed 19 June 2009 at (2) King, Rachel. (2008) How Cloud Computing is Changing the World. Business Week, Special Report. Accessed 19 June 2009 at (3) Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2008) Use of Cloud Computing Applications and Services. Pew Internet. Accessed 19 June 2009 at (4) Wikipedia. (2009) Platform as Service. Accessed 19 June 2009 at (5) Wikipedia. (2009) Infrastructure as Service. Accessed 19 June 2009 at (6) Gardiner, Thomas. (2009) The Future of Cloud Computing; A Long Term Forecast. Wired at Accessed 20 June 2009 at (7) Armbrust, M. [et al]. (2009) Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing. Accessed 20 June 2009 at

Geo-Everything - Becky Oliver and Beth Leeder

1.  What is GeoEverything? There are two parts to the definition “GeoEverything,” The first part “Geo” relates to geolocation.  Geolocation is the identification of the real-world geographic location of an Internet-connected computer, mobile device, website visitor or other. Geolocation may refer to the practice of assessing the location, or to the actual assessed location, or to locational data.  Geolocation can be performed by associating a geographic location (set of two coordinates) with the Internet Protocol (IP) address, MAC address, RFID, hardware embedded article/production number, embedded software number (such as UUID, Exif/IPTC/XMP or modern steganography), invoice, Wi-Fi connection location, or device GPS coordinates, or other, perhaps self-disclosed information. Geolocation usually works by automatically looking up an IP address on a WHOIS service and retrieving the registrant's physical address. Geolocation technology is not new.  If you’ve ever tracked your movement, the movement of an animal, participated in geocaching using GPS, geotagged photos to a map in Google Map, or linked a coordinate to a picture you’ve taken, then you’ve done some form of geolocation. The “Everything” in GeoEverything is new and applies to the numerous location aware devices (LAD) such as laptops, cameras, and cell phones. Many LAD such as the iPhone have built in GPS and can “automatically determine and record their own precise location and transmit this information to web-based applications for a host of uses.”  Locational data can be saved along with digital maps, imagery, and video, or used to create map mashups using online multimedia or geotagging data. Question 2:  Who is using the technology? URL:   MIT School of Education: The MIT Scheller Teacher Education Program has been creating "Augmented Reality" (AR) simulations to engage people in simulation games that combine real-world experiences with additional information supplied to them by handheld computers. The first of these games, Environmental Detectives (ED), was an outdoor game in which players using GPS guided handheld computers try to uncover the source of a toxic spill by interviewing virtual characters and conducting large scale simulated environmental measurements and analyzing data. Through Environmental Detectives and other AR games we explored the qualities that defined a core set of features required to create fun and effective location-based learning games. This research helped us to create our Outdoor Augmented Reality Toolkit, a drag and drop based environment for creating AR Games.  URL: A collaboration with the Freesounds Project and folks the ability to geotag the sounds posted to the Freesounds Project and search for sounds using a map. 3.  What are the downsides? Privacy Issues – some individuals or entities may use this technology maliciously to conduct unauthorized tracking of people, residences, or activities. Overload and data management – duplicate pictures of the same location may overload the server capabilities Time to transmit – geo related image file size is very large.  The larger the file image size, the longer it takes to transmit the image. Cost – who pays for the server where the data is stored?  Learning curve – as the ability to obtain geolocative data becomes easier, we can expect younger users to use this technology.  Younger users may not understand the privacy issues associated with this technology. Windows 7 - Inability to limit access to specific programs once the GPS service on you LAD is turned on - there’s no way to limit access to specific programs: Anything that you launch will be able to access the GPS information without even warning you. This opens the door for spoofing programs that could use this information mischievously. 4.  Where is it going? Horizon Report says:  Because of the ease of using devices that already have the geolocation capability, the use of this technology will pick up over the next 2-3 years.  The merging of the gaming aspect and the geolocation aspect as evidenced in the MIT project will become more prevalent.  As we move away from the novelty of the technology, we’ll begin to create more useable databases of information and the kinds of projects that can be assigned would greatly increased with the access these databases would provide. How cool would it be for students in Ecology to help with the mapping of bird migrations by geotagging pictures and sounds and posting them to a common or shared database?  5.  What are the implications for teaching and learning? Even though GeoEverything is a new and emerging technology, it is clear to see that there are numerous benefits for educators and students alike.  Following the activities of a significant event by adding photographs with grid coordinates over a map makes the information (and learning) more meaningful to the student.  This is particularly true for history, science, and social and political studies majors wishing to track the migration patterns of a specific species, group of people, weather, or world events. Geotagging allows students and faculty to conduct virtual fieldtrips without leaving the classroom.  Students can also document their own travels by capturing pictures, tagging with locational data, and then placing them on a map such as Google maps. As this technology continues to evolve, educators need to be aware of intellectual property issues.  For example, who owns the data pasted over someone's private property, and once your products are placed on the Internet, can you control how geotagged your property is or becomes?

The Personal Web - Dwight Farris

The  personal  web refers  to  both a  collection of technologies  and  a  way  of thinking about  online content. Described in the  2009 Horizon Report as part  of a  trend  that began with simple innovations like  personalized start  pages, RSS aggregation, and  customizable widgets, the  personal  web is a term coined to represent a collection of technologies that confer the  ability  to  reorganize, configure  and manage online content rather than just viewing it;but part of the personal web is the underlying idea that web content can be sorted, displayed, and even built upon according to  an individual ’s  personal  needs and interests.

Semantic Aware Applications-Travis Cornegay

Semantic search technology enables accurate retrieval of information through concept or true meaning match. Semantic search technology serves a valuable role, as it’s perhaps the only method that can be appropriately applied to credible and dynamic content. Most web search technology is ineffective beyond common queries unless the issue of semantics has been addressed in the particular technology being used. Difficulties at this time in solving the issue of semantics, is theoretical approach. There are currently two approaches being taken in developing the most effective semantic-aware applications; bottom-up approach and top-down approach. The bottom-up approach is problematic in that it assumes metadata will be added to each piece of content, to include information about its context. The top-down approach revolves around developing natural language search capability that can make those same kinds of determinations or connections without any specific metadata.    

Smart Objects - Connie Hackathorn

Applications/technology that can sense presence – cognizance or create another awareness – Smart objects know something about itself. What is it – according to the 2009 Horizon report, “A smart object is simply any physical object that includes a unique identifier that can track information about the object.” Although the technology is forecast for adoption in four to five years, there currently exists Smart technology that will certainly provide foundational components of what is yet to come.

Mobiles - Darrick Buban

What is it? Mobiles are long range, portable, electronic devices used for voice and/or data communication over a network.  Available features include: Voice calling Text messaging Internet access Gaming Music play including MP3 files and radio receiver Personal data organization (PDA) Picture and video play and capture GPS navigation Push to talk (PTT – like using a walkie-talkie) Email Memory card reader Productivity tools (word processing, presentation and spreadsheet creation, etc) Third party software Who is currently using it or how might it be use? I think the correct question to ask here is, “who isn’t using a mobile?”  There are approximately 4.1 billion people world wide who subscribe to mobile services including everyone from nuclear physicist to hobos to preschoolers to my even my dad (who has sent more text messages and pictures from his mobile than I have).  Ultimately, their main function is a portable global computing and communication tool where there seems no limit to who uses or how mobiles are used when looking along the lines of computing and communication. What are the downsides? Keeping up with the added functionalities and capacities Providing users formal instruction on how to use the devices Obtaining technical guidance from third party software providers on how to use their tool Transforming conventional subject mater into mobile form Developing metrics to measure the benefits of the devices Creating sufficient security protocols at remote databases (i.e. Google Docs) to protect data Providing a way to locate a misplaced portable as most are hand held and easier to lose Developing longer battery life – most portable batteries only last a couple of hours Installing worldwide wireless internet access so that information can be accessed at any time and any where Ensuring that monthly service fees and the cost of the devices is not prohibitive for users Where does the report say it is going and where do you think it is going? From a majority of the articles that I read, mobiles will replace the computer and will become the universal tool for communication.  I do not think they will replace the computer but I do think that they will share the computing market equally with computers if: Display techniques are made larger, perhaps though special glasses, I don’t want to type my dissertation out on a 2” square screen Regular size keyboards are developed, again, I am not going to type my dissertation out using my thumbs – maybe well developed voice recognition software is the answer Battery life is extended Proper security protocols are put in place Locating features are implanted into the device for when they’re misplaced Service subscription fees drop Technical support is available for using the software What are the implications for teaching and learning? In the classroom, mobiles would allow greater integration of visual examples to make instructions more meaningful and intuitive.  A more collaborative teaching and learning environment might also develop, where students and instructors both can observe and participate in the creating of scholarly material.  Mobiles also allow the quick lookup of subject matter in class.  Instant feedback on whether the student is going down the right path on an assignment is also possible with mobiles as well as allowing instant access to other university libraries.

Smart Objects - Scott Vasey

K-12 Education

Online Communication Tools

Mobiles - Nate Espinoza/Kendra Citron

Mobiles consist of any number of different devices that can be easily taken by a person on the go. Currently mobiles are in use by more people than ever and may soon replace the need for owning a laptop. According to the report, mobile use is quickly on the rise. I think that mobile use may grow even faster than the report indicates, especially with children becoming more adept at using technology. With all of the new applications being developed for mobiles, instructors and students will be able to collaborate in new ways. classes and meetings will be more accessible for everyone. The limits may be dependant on the types of applications that can be developed. Although in past years mobiles have been considered more of a luxury, today basic units are inexpensive. It is not uncommon to see K-12 students with some form of mobile technology. Today some schools are offering content that can be delivered via mobiles and given the ease of use coupled with the resources saving advantages, it is easy to see that mobiles are an option that should not be ignored by instructors and students alike.

Cloud Computing

Smart Objects - Nicole Kiley

Smart Objects:  Mind Map - Nicole Kiley Imagine packing for a trip and having everything labeled for when it’s to be used and why.  No longer wondering whether you forgot something or overlooked packing something you needed.  This doesn’t have to be a thing of the future.  Smart objects are allowing this imagination to become reality.  This paper will allow readers to learn what a smart object is, how it is currently being used or can be used, what the downsides are, where this technology is going and the implications that smart objects pose for teaching and learning. Wikipedia defines a smart object as an object in a virtual environment that can describe its own possible interactions.  Smart objects allow any physical object to contain a unique identifier that can track information about the object.  This combination of sensors and unique identifiers allow people with network access to link physical objects with a wealth of virtual information.  Some of the technologies that support smart objects are radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, quick response (QR) codes and smartcards.  While these technologies are not new, we are finding new ways to use them.  RFID tags are tags that are applied to objects for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves.  RFID tags have two integral parts, an integrated circuit for storing and processing information and a radio frequency signal.  Once a tag is applied to a physical object, it allows a person to scan the tag and use decoding software to acquire digital information about the object.  QR codes are two-dimensional bar codes that can contain an alphanumeric text and often feature URL’s that direct users to sites where they can learn about an object or place.  The final technology often associated with smart objects are smartcards. Smartcards are a pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits which can process data.  These pocket size cards act as mini-computers in an object allowing it to sense location, temperature, color, etc.  Using the above technology, smart objects allow a world of interconnectedness.  According to the Horizon report, smart objects began to blur the line between physical objects and digital information. Smart objects are very popular in Japan where they are used for commercial tracking, logistics, inventory control and advertising.  Popularity in other countries is beginning to increase as more people use cell phones to access 3G networks.  Smart objects have been in use for point-of-sale purchases, passport tracking, inventory management, identification, and similar applications for quite some time; but the application of smart objects in learning has been limited.  Some teachers use smart objects in slide presentations to direct students to websites where the slide deck is hosted or where supplementary information can be found.  Andy Ramsden at Bath University in England uses grant money to investigate ways to use QR codes in academic settings.    Ramsden has conducted brain storming session at various colleges that have resulted in numerous ideas for QR codes in the classroom or school setting.  The University of Gloucester has put QR codes into library books with the renewal phone number encoded.  The University of Leicester has used them in equipment rooms where they might be scanned to access a how-to manual.  Other potential uses have included QR codes to direct students to RSS feeds or lecture podcasts.  QR codes might also be effective repositories of data in problem-solving activities involving role play or alternate reality games (ARGs). In Australia, for instance, a promotional ARG for the movie Quantum of Solace used QR codes to hide clues in the unfolding game.  The use of smart objects is numerous, but how to effectively use them poses many questions.  How do teachers get software to use QR codes or RFID tags?  How do teachers incorporate this technology into their curriculum?  How do teachers convince struggling school districts to pay out money for brand new technology?  Although these questions cannot be answered overnight, there are numerous websites that help teachers acquire the technology and begin to incorporate it into their curriculum.  Web services like ShotCode ( and Kaywa ( let anyone encode QR tags and print them out.  ShotCode allows users to try the service free before having to pay while Kaywa allows for free QR coding.  Although both sites are aimed at producing QR codes that can be used for businesses, that does not mean their use for education is non-existent.  These sites produce tags that can be placed on any physical object; and anyone with a camera-enabled cell phone can take a photo of the tag, analyze it, and decode the information, which could be a URL, an address, a phone number, or something similar. Other sites such as Tikitag ( and Violet’s Mirror ( allow for scannable stickers to be placed on any physical object and when placed on or near a USB scanner attached to a computer the tag is read and the computer performs whatever actions the user has associated with the tag.  With these sites in mind, teachers can place QR codes on historical items that would allow students to scan the object in and acquire all of the virtual information associated with it such as what it is, where it’s from, why it’s important.  Teachers could also put QR codes on maps that would allow students to obtain an infinite amount of information on the location they scanned into the computer.  There is a world of possibilities for smart objects in the classroom, but these possibilities also come with downsides. Not everyone is aware of smart objects.  QR codes and RFID tags are new to people. As a result, not everyone who sees one will know to pull out a cell phone and take a picture of the matrix to decode it. Also convincing districts to try a technology that so many people are unfamiliar with poses major challenges.  Although the technology behind smart objects is not new, it’s not very widespread.  Not everyone owns a camera phone, and because many cell phones do not include a QR reader or radio frequency signal, the software must be downloaded.  The codes and tags might also take users to websites that do not display properly on cell phones.  The other major downside to this technology is its application to smart objects.  Although RFID tags and QR codes have been around for awhile using them behind the concept of smart tags is new and not clearly understood.  Teachers can’t expect students to be able to successfully use smart objects without considerable support and teachers can’t support students if they don’t understand the technology themselves.  The final issue becomes it use.  While projects like the one at Bath University are investigating potential uses, the challenge remains to find ap¬propriate and effective curriculum uses of QR codes and RFID tags. With the downsides of smart objects in mind, we also need to consider where this technology might be going.  QR codes and RFID tags can store quite complex information in a small package. And while this technology is currently very low key, as awareness grows about how useful it is, we can expect to see smart objects in more public venues and more widely used in the classroom. According to the article, 7 Things You Should Know About QR Codes, the authors see their use growing considerably.  They believe that commercial packaging will display codes with detailed nutritional information or links to web sites where users can play the latest product-associated game or register for updates or coupons. For the classroom, the authors anticipate growth of smart objects as well.  QR codes on student tests could help ensure anonymity in grading. Posted next to artwork or in musical or theatrical programs, QR codes might lead students to open forums where they could join in com¬munity discussions about what they’ve heard or seen. In scientific endeavors, QR codes could take the place of printed labels; attached to lab work, samples, or medication options, they could preserve confidentiality of participant names.  The more research I conduct on smart objects the more use I could see for them in my classroom.  Smart objects would allow me to broaden my students’ horizon beyond the confines of the four walls of the classroom.  With a simple scan, students could be directed to a wealth of information that they might never have known.  Technology is playing a much bigger role in the lives of my students and allowing them to blur the virtual world with the physical world could open numerous doors.  This linkage between the physical world and virtual world provides on-the-spot access to descriptive language and online resources for objects and locations. The above linkage has major implications for teaching and learning.  The blurring of the worlds supports experiential learning, where it is brought out of the classroom and into physical experience.  Smart objects offer expanded teaching opportunities that allow students to create and contribute content to what they are learning.  7 Things You Should Know About QR Codes provides some excellent examples of how smart objects could be used to enhance learning.  In history projects, students might research information about local sites, write up what they have learned, generate QR codes for their content, post the codes at key destinations, and tour the sites where a network of information from other students has been posted. This activity would allow students to move outside the bounds of the school and into city centers, historic neighborhoods, and manu¬facturing districts, where learning becomes a matter of explora¬tion. Because much of the information in QR codes is browser-based, students engaged in study abroad can use the codes to read websites in their native languages or turn a local destination into a foreign-language lesson. The authors state that  the greatest importance of QR codes lie not in their specific use, which may be su¬perseded by newer codes and interpreters, but in the opportuni¬ties they offer for moving away from keyboards as input devices in learning environments.  Smart objects allow for students to broaden their horizon and really become a part of what they are learning.  Students move from active listeners to active participants who play a major role in their education and understanding of different subjects.  A perfect example of this is a project called ThinkeringSpaces.  This project is the brainchild of the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Institute of Design.  It combines physical and virtual components to produce an environment where physical objects, like books, can become smart objects.  This allows readers to go from active listeners to active participants who can watch a recorded interview with the author, pull up other readers’ reviews or leave his or her own review.  LeapFrog Tag is a smart objects project aimed at very young children.  LeapFrog has created a pen-shaped device that allows kids to interact with specially printed books and other material.  These children can listen to the story, hear words pronounced, and play games by tapping the pen on the pages.  For years, educational research has shown that students who interact with learning and become active participants learn and retain far more information than the traditional way of learning.  These two projects are perfect examples of how smart objects allow students to become the active participants that all educators say is best for learning.  These projects show that smart objects have very positive implications on teaching and learning. I recently watched an episode of the Big Bang Theory on CBS.  During this episode, a character by the name of Sheldon is packing for a vacation.  Sheldon attached RFID tags to all articles of clothing.  When asked what he was doing, Sheldon responds that he is simplifying the task of packing.  He informs his roommate that by running a wand over the article of clothing it will send information to his computer allowing him to cross reference them against destination, anticipated activities, weather conditions, duration of trip, etc.  Most people would chalk this unusual TV encounter up to a script writer, but for once I have to say that TV is very real.  The positive implication of smart objects transcends fiction and reality.   Smart objects allow for simplifying packing on TV shows to drawing students into the learning in a normal everyday classroom.  With further knowledge and expansion, smart objects can become a very real and useful thing in schools by allowing teachers to take a step back and really involve students in their own learning.  Although smart objects have a long way to go to actually becoming everyday learning opportunities in classrooms, fully understanding them, their uses and their implications is always the first step. Works Citied 7 Things You Should Know About QR Codes. EDUCAUSE: 7 Things You Should Know About..., Retrieved June 12, 2009, from IIT Institute of Design. Retrieved June 11, 2009, from ThinkeringSpace Web site: Johnson, L., Levine, A., Smith, R., and Smythe, T. (2009). The 2009 Horizon Report: K-12 Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. LeapFrog. Retrieved June 09, 2009, from LeapFrog: Tag Web site: QR Code. Retrieved June 11, 2009, from Wikipedia Web site: Radio-Frequency Identification. Retrieved June 11, 2009, from Wikipedia Web site: Smart Card. Retrieved June 11, 2009, from Wikipedia Web site: Smart Objects - Horizon.K12. The Horizon Report: 2009 K-12 Edition, Retrieved June 10, 2009, from The Big Bang Theory. Retrieved June 8, 2009, from CBS Television Web site:

Lisa Adams - The Personal Web

The  personal  web refers  to  both a  collection of technologies  and  a  way  of thinking about  online content. Described in the  2009 Horizon Report as part  of a  trend  that began with simple innovations like  personalized start  pages, RSS aggregation, and  customizable widgets, the  personal  web is a term coined to represent a collection of technologies that confer the  ability  to  reorganize, configure  and manage online content rather than just viewing it;but part of the personal web is the underlying idea that web content can be sorted, displayed, and even built upon according to  an individual ’s  personal  needs and interests.