hypertension

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hypertension by Mind Map: hypertension

1. complications

1.1. cardiovascular disease

1.1.1. myocardial infarction

1.1.2. Angina

1.1.3. Heart Failure

1.1.4. atherosceleroses

1.2. cerebrovascular disease

1.2.1. cerebral hemorrage

1.2.2. Brain attack

1.3. kidney disease

1.3.1. kidney failure

1.3.2. end stage renal disease

1.4. retinal damage

2. Risk Factors

2.1. Age & Sex

2.2. Environmental

2.2.1. High Na intake

2.2.2. High K intake

2.2.2.1. Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells

2.2.3. low Ca intake

2.2.4. Obesity

2.2.5. Tobacco usage

2.2.6. Stress

2.3. Family & Genetics

3. Normal range

3.1. <130/<85 mmHg

4. Manifestations

4.1. Headache

4.2. Vision changes

4.3. Dizziness

4.4. Chest pain

4.5. Confusion

4.6. Nausea

4.7. Sweating

5. treatment

5.1. life style modification

5.1.1. Weight

5.1.1.1. maintain normal body weight

5.1.2. Diet

5.1.2.1. rich in fruits ,vegetables ,grains , low fat dairy products ...low in fat , cholesterol and sodium

5.1.3. Salt

5.1.3.1. reduce dietary sodium to no more than 2.4 g/day

5.1.4. Exercise

5.1.4.1. walking (30 min/day)

5.1.5. Alcohol

5.1.5.1. limit to no more than 2 drinks/day for men & 1 drink for women

5.2. Drugs

5.2.1. ACE inhibitors

5.2.1.1. lower arteriolar resistance and increase venous capactiance profound

5.2.1.2. hypotension after first dose causes mild dry mouth

5.2.1.3. C/I : in renal artery stenosis

5.2.1.4. Check renal function after every change of dose

5.2.1.5. EX: Capoten & Enalapril

5.2.2. ARBs

5.2.2.1. directly cause vasodilataion &reduce secretion of aldosterone

5.2.2.2. used with patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors

5.2.2.3. Ex: losartan

5.2.3. CCBs

5.2.3.1. causes of arteriolar dilatation and reduces force of cardiac contraction

5.2.3.2. S.E : headache , sweating , dizziness

5.2.3.3. Ex: Amlodipine , diltiazem

5.2.4. Diuretics

5.2.4.1. thaizide

5.2.4.1.1. inhibit Na/Cl Co-transport

5.2.4.1.2. affect serum cholesterol &glucose level

5.2.4.1.3. S.E: low K

5.2.4.1.4. Ex: chlorothaizide

6. renin angiotensin aldosterone system

7. by ali ahmed