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hypertension by Mind Map: hypertension
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hypertension

complications

cardiovascular disease

myocardial infarction

Angina

Heart Failure

atherosceleroses

cerebrovascular disease

cerebral hemorrage

Brain attack

kidney disease

kidney failure

end stage renal disease

retinal damage

Risk Factors

Age & Sex

Environmental

High Na intake

High K intake, Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells

low Ca intake

Obesity

Tobacco usage

Stress

Family & Genetics

Normal range

<130/<85 mmHg

Manifestations

Headache

Vision changes

Dizziness

Chest pain

Confusion

Nausea

Sweating

treatment

life style modification

Weight, maintain normal body weight

Diet, rich in fruits ,vegetables ,grains , low fat dairy products ...low in fat , cholesterol and sodium

Salt, reduce dietary sodium to no more than 2.4 g/day

Exercise, walking (30 min/day)

Alcohol, limit to no more than 2 drinks/day for men & 1 drink for women

Drugs

ACE inhibitors, lower arteriolar resistance and increase venous capactiance profound, hypotension after first dose causes mild dry mouth, C/I : in renal artery stenosis, Check renal function after every change of dose, EX: Capoten & Enalapril

ARBs, directly cause vasodilataion &reduce secretion of aldosterone, used with patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors, Ex: losartan

CCBs, causes of arteriolar dilatation and reduces force of cardiac contraction, S.E : headache , sweating , dizziness, Ex: Amlodipine , diltiazem

Diuretics, thaizide, inhibit Na/Cl Co-transport, affect serum cholesterol &glucose level, S.E: low K, Ex: chlorothaizide

renin angiotensin aldosterone system

by ali ahmed